Investigating plant phototropism



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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Investigating plant phototropism

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science CHAPTER 2 LIFE SCIENCE Life Science—Core Materials 2.1 Cells: Building Blocks of Life. 3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and cells—building blocks of life. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: middle 7. Cells: Building Blocks of Life, which introduces students to the cellular basis of life, is organized in 4 chapters: (1) "The Nature of Life," (2) "Cell Structure and Function," (3) "Cell Processes," and (4) "Cell Energy." During the course, students learn about several theories of the origin of life on earth. They also identify the basic characteristics of living things, learn about the organic compounds that are the building blocks of life, and examine the important structures of cells and their functions. Students compare a typical plant cell and a typical animal cell, and they study how materials pass into and out of cells through osmosis, diffusion, and active transport. They also examine the processes of growth and reproduction of cells, find out how cells obtain and use energy, and learn about and compare respiration and photosynthesis. Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students analyze their school lunch menu for the presence of 3 major food nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins). They also learn how to use a microscope to observe objects, and they look at prepared slides of mitosis in animal and plant cells. Students investigate the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration using Elodea and bromthymol blue solution (an indicator) in flasks. Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by reading," and "find out by writing." Other skills-oriented activities are also suggested—for example, observing a piece of onion tissue under a microscope and writing a brief report on Melvin Calvin's discovery of the Calvin cycle.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Other features of the textbook include problem-solving challenges, descriptions of science careers, and science connections to real-world events or issues. The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: (1) zoologist Fernando Nottebohm and his study of neurogenesis in bird brains, (2) the uses and abuses of human-growth hormone (HGH), and (3) a fictional account of people's being given attributes of plants to allow them to survive in a space colony. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 9 investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples of the investigations include studying the space requirements of seed plants; examining the structure and function of various cells, tissues, and organs in the chicken; observing the movement of molecules through a cell membrane; and using bromthymol blue and bromthymol yellow solutions to determine how carbon dioxide is exchanged between organisms and their environments. ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "LIFE SCIENCE ——CORE MATERIALS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 5 of this guide. Each curriculum annotation has a two-part entry number: the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2; and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication Number of edition, if applicable Authors (an individual author or authors, an institutional author, or a project or program name under which the material was developed) Series title Series developer, if applicable Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication Recommended Grade Level The grade level for each piece of material was recommended by teacher evaluators during the development of this guide. In some instances, the recommended grade level may differ slightly from the publisher's advertised level. Key to Content Standard: 5-8 The key lists the content standards for grades 5-8 from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) that are addressed in depth by the item. A key is provided for core materials and supplementary units. (See appendix C.)

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information appears at the end of each entry. Included are— Prices (of teacher's guides, student books, lab manuals, and kits or units) Publisher/supplier (The name of a principal publisher/supplier, although not necessarily the sole source, for the items listed in the price category. Appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers," provides the address, phone and fax numbers, and electronic ordering information, where available, for each publisher and supplier.) Materials (various sources from which one might obtain the required materials) Readers must contact publishers/suppliers for complete and up-to-date listings of the program resources and support materials available for a particular unit. Depending on the developer, these items may be required, optional, or both; they may be offered individually and/or in kits, packages, or boxes. Materials may change with revised editions. The prices given in this chapter for selected resources or materials are based on information from the publishers and suppliers but are not meant to represent the full range of ordering options. Indexes of Curriculum Materials The multiple indexes on pp. 449-78 allow easy access to the information in this guide. Various aspects of the curriculum materials—including titles, topics addressed in each unit, grade levels, and standards addressed—are the focus of seven separate indexes. For example, titles and entry numbers are listed in the "Title Index" on pp. 450-54. The "Index of Authors, Series, and Curriculum Projects," on pp. 455-57, provides entry numbers of any annotated titles in a particular series. Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs Appendix D, "Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs with Titles Annotated in This Guide," on pp. 441-48, lists, by program or series, the individual titles annotated in the sections "Core Materials" and "Supplementary Units" in the five curriculum chapters. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's resource package contains the student edition and annotated teacher's editions of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, a teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evolution and equilibrium; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; regulation and behavior; diversity and adaptations of organisms. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-423476-6), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423237-2), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 2.2 Ecology: Earth's Living Resources. 3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, cells—building blocks of life, and ecology—earth's living resources. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Reading level: early 9. Ecology: Earth's Living Resources is organized in 4 chapters: (1) "Interactions among Living Things," (2) "Cycles in Nature," (3) "Exploring Earth's Biomes," and (4) "Wildlife Conservation." Students are introduced to interactions and connections among living things as they study topics including ecosystems, populations, competition, and symbiosis. They discover the effects of daily, lunar, and annual rhythms on living things. They learn about chemical cycles. They study about ecological succession and biomes. They also learn about extinct and endangered species, the causes of wildlife endangerment, and methods of wildlife conservation. Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students explore the effect of lawn fertilizer on an aquatic ecosystem. They observe the life cycle of a housefly, and they discover how different plants grow in different biomes. Students also construct a miniature ecosystem with aquatic plants, guppies, and pond snails. Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by reading," and "find out by writing." Other skills-oriented activities are also suggested—for example, organizing a debate about the destruction of the rainforests. In another activity, students compare the organisms in mowed and unmoved areas of a backyard, field, or park lawn over a period of 6 weeks. Other features of the textbook include problem-solving challenges, descriptions of science careers, and science connections to real-world events or issues. The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: (1) the Biosphere II project in Arizona, (2) controversies generated by current wildlife conservation efforts, and (3) a fictional account of what Africa's animal population may be like 50 years from now. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 8 additional investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples include examining an outdoor ecosystem, observing schooling behavior in fish, and conducting an investigation to determine whether mental alertness in human beings changes predictably during a 24-hour period. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's resource package contains the student edition and annotated teacher's editions of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, a teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-423443-X), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423203-8), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 2.3 Ecosystems. Robert C. Knott and Herbert D. Thier. Science Curriculum Improvement Study 3 (SCIS 3) series. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1993. Program Overview The Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS) series focuses on the concepts and processes of science for grades K-6. The most current version of the series—SCIS 3—consists of 13 units: a kindergarten unit and 2 sequences of 6 units each in physical-earth science and life-environmental science for grades 1 through 6. Two units are designed for grade 6. The components of a SCIS 3 unit are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials. Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6. Ecosystems introduces students to physical and biological aspects of ecosystems in the world around them. The unit consists of 22 chapters organized in 5 sections: (1) "Reviewing Concepts and Creating Classroom Ecosystems," (2) "The Water Cycle," (3) "The Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Cycle," (4) "Cycles in an Ecosystem," and (5) "Pollution." The unit begins with students constructing aquarium-terrarium systems. They discover evidence of the water cycle as they observe evaporation and condensation in this system and in other experimental setups. Activities include the use of snails, ladybugs, aphids, daphnia, guppies, hornwort, and algae. Students use bromthymol blue (an indicator) to explore the role of plants and animals in the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle, and they learn about the food-mineral cycle and investigate various aspects of the water cycle and water pollution. Diagrams of the 3 cycles illustrate the exchange and cycling of materials in an ecosystem. Students also study photographs of natural ecosystems, data cards listing features of ecosystems, and maps showing the locations of 7 different ecosystems in the United States and Canada. The teacher's guide includes an introduction to the unit, lesson plans for each of the 5 sections, a glossary, and blackline masters for a student journal. Science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment are provided. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Populations and ecosystems. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-87504-942-7), $39.50. Kit, $680.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.4 Ecosystems. Science and Technology for Children (STC) series. Developed by National Science Resources Center (Washington, D.C.). Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply, 1996. Program Overview The Science and Technology for Children (STC) series consists of 24 inquiry-centered curriculum units for grades 1-6, with 4 units at each grade level. Students learn about topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. The technological applications of science and the interactions among science, technology, and society are addressed throughout the program. The STC units, each of which takes about 16 class sessions to complete, encourage participatory learning and the integration of science with mathematics, language arts, social studies, and art. The components of an STC unit are a teacher's guide, a student activity book with simple instructions and illustrations, and a kit of materials. Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-6. Reading level: 6. In Ecosystems, students learn about the inter-dependence of organisms and the natural environment by using 2-liter soda bottles to set up, observe, and experiment with 2 miniature ecosystems—an aquarium and a terrarium. After studying the 2 separate ecosystems, students connect them and observe the ecocolumn, noting any changes that may indicate an imbalance in the system. They read about aquatic and terrestrial organisms and pollution. They study habitat changes and conduct experiments simulating the effects of acid rain, road salt, and fertilizer. As a final activity, students in small groups investigate a real ecosystem in danger—the Chesapeake Bay. They read about the problems of the bay, analyze the situation from several points of view, propose possible solutions, and begin to grapple with the trade-offs involved in various solutions. Ecosystems is a 16-lesson unit. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography of additional resources, and information on maintaining live materials. Science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment are provided. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES: Structure of the earth system. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-89278-733-3), $24.95. Student activity book (ISBN 0-89278-734-1), $3.75. Unit, $389.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.5 Experiments with Plants. Science and Technology for Children (STC) series. Developed by National Science Resources Center (Washington, D.C.). Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply, 1992. Program Overview The Science and Technology for Children (STC) series consists of 24 inquiry-centered curriculum units for grades 1-6, with 4 units at each grade level. Students learn about topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. The technological applications of science and the interactions among science, technology, and society are addressed throughout the program. The STC units, each of which takes about 16 class sessions to complete, encourage participatory learning and the integration of science with mathematics, language arts, social studies, and art. The components of an STC unit are a teacher's guide, a student activity book with simple instructions and illustrations, and a kit of materials. Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6. Reading level: middle 7. In Experiments with Plants, students learn how to design and conduct controlled experiments by using the 40-day life cycle of a Brassica plant as a vehicle for experimentation. They learn about the variables that affect plant growth and reproduction as they design and set up an experiment to manipulate an isolated variable. Students then plant seeds according to their experiment plans; they determine the effects of their experiments on the plants' life cycle through data collection, measurement, observation, and recording. After observing the entire life cycle, they communicate the results of their experiments. The unit concludes with 2 sets of experiments involving germination, geotropism, and phototropism. Some prior study of plants and plant life cycles is helpful, but not essential, for students in Experiments with Plants. This is a 15-lesson unit. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 15 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography of additional resources, and information on maintaining live materials. Science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment are provided. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-89278-680-9), $24.95. Student activity book (ISBN 0-89278-634-5), $3.75. Unit, $299.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.6 Exploring Life Science. 2nd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Exploring Life, Earth, and Physical Science series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Exploring Life, Earth, and Physical Science series is a program for middle school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this integrated program consists of 3 textbooks (1 for each major discipline) and incorporates 7 science themes—energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. Each of the 3 year-long courses contains about 6 units. The units are also available, possibly with some modifications, as individual textbooks in the Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series (see, e.g., 2.1). For

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science each course, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Reading level: middle 11. Exploring Life Science offers a complete course in life science. The units in this textbook are entitled (1) "Characteristics of Living Things," (2) "Monerans, Protists, Fungi, and Plants," (3) "Animals," (4) "Human Biology," (5) "Heredity and Adaptation," and (6) "Ecology." During the course, students learn about cells and cell processes and about how living things are classified by scientists. They study the characteristics of viruses, monerans, protists, fungi, plants with and without seeds, and the various groups of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. They investigate plant and animal structures, adaptations, reproductive processes, and growth patterns. They study human body systems, human reproduction and development, genetics and applied genetics, evolution, cycles in nature, and the earth's biomes. Examples of the lab investigations that students conduct during the 6 units are these: observing a slime mold over 3 days, dissecting an owl pellet, observing what effect alcohol has on the growth of microorganisms, and making a model to represent recombinant DNA. Each of the 6 units in Exploring Life Science typically has 3 to 6 chapters. Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Also included are suggested skills-oriented activities for discovering, doing, calculating, thinking, and writing about science. The activities range from comparing down and contour feathers, to making spore prints, to writing a report on human fungal diseases. Each chapter includes a laboratory investigation as well as a review and study guide. Other features of this textbook include problem-solving challenges, science connections to real-world events or issues, and careers in science. A "Science Gazette" feature at the end of each unit profiles prominent scientists—for example, paleontologist Jack Horner, physicist Stephen Hawking, and epidemiologist Veronica Broome. An "Activity Bank" at the back of the book provides at least one additional laboratory investigation for each chapter. Examples include using a micro-scope to observe the behavior of hydra, investigating the response of Euglena to light, growing a plant from a cutting, and exploring the process of making compost. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual contains 70 investigations directly correlated with information presented in the student textbook. Examples include observing the movement of molecules through a cell membrane, culturing yeast cells, investigating germination inhibitors, examining bird adaptations, observing some human reflexes, and constructing a microhabitat. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including a box of teaching resources with activities, worksheets, and assessment materials for each chapter. Other available materials are a teacher's desk reference, an integrated science activity book, a computer test bank, videos, videodiscs, transparencies, a classroom manager guide, and a book of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; risks and benefits; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-418732-6), $41.47. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-422841-3), $70.47. Lab manual, teacher's edition (1995), $24.47. Teaching resources, $306.47. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 2.7 Food and Nutrition. Full Option Science System (FOSS) series. Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science (Berkeley, Calif.). Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1993. Program Overview The Full Option Science System (FOSS) program is a K-6 science curriculum consisting of 27 stand-alone modules. The 8 modules for grades 5-6 are organized under topics in the life, physical, and earth sciences and in scientific reasoning and technology. They can be used in any order. The FOSS program is designed to engage students in scientific concepts through multisensory, hands-on laboratory activities. All modules of the program incorporate 5 unifying themes—(1) pattern, (2) structure, (3) interaction, (4) change, and (5) system. The components of a FOSS module are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials. Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-6. The unit Food and Nutrition helps students understand what food is, what its chemical components are, and how several nutrient groups contribute to making food healthful. Students test foods for their acid content, as well as for their vitamin C, fat, and sugar content. Next they learn how to read nutritional information on package labels, how to calculate the caloric content of foods, and how to use their own knowledge and the nutritional information from the packaging lists of product ingredients to plan and evaluate lunch menus. Activities involve students in measuring and comparing, observing, and analyzing. Food and Nutrition consists of 4 activities, requiring about 10 sessions of 45 to 60 minutes each. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. Science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment are provided. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-7826-0093-X), $101. Complete module, $429. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.8 Glencoe Life Science. Lucy Daniel, Ed Ortleb, and Alton Biggs. Glencoe Life, Earth, and Physical Science series. New York, N.Y.: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1997. Program Overview The Glencoe Life, Earth, and Physical Science series includes 3 full-year courses—one in life, one in earth, and one in physical science—for students in grades 8 and above. Four major themes are developed: (1) energy, (2) systems and interactions, (3) scale and structure, and (4) stability and change. An extensive set of materials and resources, including many optional components, is available for students and teachers. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: early 7. Glencoe Life Science is divided into 7 units: (1) "Life," (2) "Heredity and Evolution," (3) "Diversity of Life," (4) "Plants," (5) "Animals," (6) "Ecology," and (7) "The Human Body." During this course, students learn about cells and cell processes and about patterns of heredity and how inherited changes can influence evolutionary trends. They learn how organisms are classified, and they examine the characteristics and life processes of monerans, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Students are introduced to the fundamentals of ecology, including interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, characteristics of populations, the flow of energy, and the cycling of matter. They also study the systems of the human body and how they function, and they examine some basic health concepts. Sample lab activities in this textbook include observing and comparing mitosis in plant cells and animal cells, using a dichotomous key to identify native cats of North America, designing and carrying out an experiment to determine what happens to proteins in the digestive system, and experimenting with models to observe the greenhouse effect. Glencoe Life Science has 27 chapters in its 7 units. Each chapter begins with a self-guided activity in which students make observations and generate questions about chapter concepts and topics. Reading sections on science concepts are then interwoven with various types of activities, including open-ended activities, minilabs (activities that can be done in class or at home), and skill-building or problem-solving activities. In activities for designing their own experiments, students brainstorm hypotheses, make a decision to investigate a hypothesis that can be tested, plan procedures, and think about why their hypothesis was supported or not. Special features of the textbook include "connect to" marginal notes that relate basic questions in

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science physics, chemistry, earth science, and life science to one another. The book also provides "science and society" features that invite students to confront real-life problems; profiles of people in science; and reading selections about connections between science, history, literature, and the arts. Teacher's Edition The wraparound teacher's edition provides information on curriculum integration, assessment, planning, and meeting the diverse needs of students. Each chapter contains a 4-page planning guide; strategies for preparing, teaching, and closing lessons; answers to in-text questions; tips on connecting earth science to other sciences, disciplines, or community resources; and different assessment options. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual offers one or more additional labs for each chapter. It has setup diagrams, data tables, and space for student responses. Examples of investigations include exploring bacterial growth, comparing seeds, observing the responses of plants to light and gravity, investigating the effects of acid rain on the germination of bean seedlings, testing for carbohydrates in foods, and comparing the effects of different caffeine products on Euglena. Program Resources and Support Materials Glencoe Life Science offers an extensive list of support materials and program resources, including the following: activity and reinforcement worksheets, science integration activities that relate earth and life science to specific physical science chapters, a critical-thinking/problem-solving book, a concept-mapping book, chapter review masters, a study guide, enrichment worksheets, a book on multicultural connections, technology-integration masters, assessments, computer test banks, color transparencies, a Spanish resources book, and interactive CD-ROM and videodisc programs. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; science and technology in society. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-02-827737-6), $41.79. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-02-827738-4), $57.86. Student lab manual, $8.25. Teacher's lab manual, $14.00. Teacher's classroom resources, $321.87. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.9 Heredity: The Code of Life. 3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and heredity—the code of life. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Reading level: early 10. Heredity: The Code of Life introduces students to the science of genetics—from its beginnings in Mendel's experiments to current research in and applications of molecular genetics. The unit is organized in 4 chapters: (1) "What Is Genetics?" (2) "How Chromosomes Work," (3) "Human Genetics," and (4) "Applied Genetics." During the course, students learn about basic patterns of inheritance and principles of heredity and discover how these patterns and principles relate to probability. They learn about the chromosome theory of heredity and discover how chromosomes control the production of proteins. Students also apply the principles of genetics to understanding specific examples of heredity in humans, including the ABO blood groups, sickle-cell anemia, and Huntington disease. Finally, they are introduced to artificial methods of manipulating inheritance—such as selective breeding techniques and genetic engineering—and the application of these methods in agriculture and medicine. Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students complete a class survey of dominant and recessive human traits, such as hair color, hairline, and type of earlobe. They observe the growth of mutant

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science (albino) corn sprouts as compared with that of normal corn sprouts. Students also study a human pedigree to trace the inheritance of sickle-cell anemia through 3 generations of a family, and they make models from construction paper to represent recombinant DNA. Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by reading," and "find out by writing." Other skills-oriented activities are also suggested—for example, calculating the incidence of Down's syndrome in the United States and discussing the pros and cons of genetically engineered food plants. Other features of this textbook include problem-solving challenges, descriptions of science careers, and science connections to real-world events or issues. The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: (1) biologist Barbara McClintock's discovery of "jumping" genes, (2) the effect of humans on the rate of extinction of wild animals and plants, and (3) the Human Genome Project. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 5 additional investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples of the investigations include solving heredity problems, building a model of DNA, observing how the results of different gene combinations produce certain traits, and cloning a duckweed plant. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's resource package contains the student edition and annotated teacher's editions of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, a teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Reproduction and heredity; diversity and adaptations of organisms. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-423468-5), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423229-1), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.10 Human Biology and Health. 3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and human biology and health. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: early 8. Human Biology and Health introduces students to human body systems, their interactions with one another, and how disorders and other factors affect the health of body systems. Over 9 chapters, students learn about the multicellular organization of the human body. They study the various systems of the human body, including the skeletal and muscular systems, the digestive system, the circulatory system, the respiratory and excretory systems, and the nervous and endocrine systems. In addition, students learn about the male and female reproductive systems and about human reproduction and development. They also read about the immune system and diseases and learn about effects of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco on the body. Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students examine the shape and arrangement of cells under a microscope, measure the number of calories used in 24 hours, measure pulse rate at different levels of activity,

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science area, and they demonstrate the critical changes that occur in a native river ecosystem after the introduction of zebra mussels. For each activity, Zebra Mussel Mania provides directions for the teacher and reproducible student worksheets. Extensions and simple connections to language, art, and social studies are suggested. The activities are correlated with specific Project 2061 Benchmarks (developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science). The unit also includes an assortment of posters, brochures, and other background information on zebra mussels and exotic aquatics gathered from a number of sources. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems. Prices: Teacher's guide, $80. Kit, $300. Publisher/supplier: Bob Williams. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Life Science—Science Activity Books 2.46 Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities. Dennis Holley. Niwot, Colo.: Roberts Rinehart, 1994. Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Animals Alive! is designed to help teachers develop activities for studying the animal kingdom. Whenever possible, the live animals used in the activities are collected locally, studied and observed, and then released (unharmed) back into their natural habitats. Each chapter investigates a major group of animals: the groups are sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, segmented worms, mollusks, arthropods, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Sections within the chapters provide detailed information on classification and general phylum characteristics, on the collection of specimens, and on their maintenance in the classroom. The chapter on arthropods, for example, provides background information on the physiology of spiders, centipedes, and mites and tells where to collect these creatures in the wild. It presents 24 pick-and-choose activities that allow students to investigate the habitat, structure, behavior/response, feeding, and reproduction and development of arthropods. It also includes suggestions for activities integrated with subject areas such as art, social studies, and writing. Each chapter addresses health and safety issues, such as how to handle species; includes observation-based ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "LIFE SCIENCE—SCIENCE ACTIVITY BOOKS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 5 of this guide. Each curriculum annotation has a two-part entry number: the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2; and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication Number of edition, if applicable Authors (an individual author or authors, an institutional author, or a project or program name under which the material was developed) Series title Series developer, if applicable Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication Recommended Grade Level The grade level for each piece of material was recommended by teacher evaluators during the development of this guide. In some instances, the recommended grade level may differ slightly from the publisher's advertised level.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information appears at the end of each entry. Included are— Prices (of teacher's guides, activity books, and kits or units) Publisher/supplier (The name of a principal publisher/supplier, although not necessarily the sole source, for the items listed in the price category. Appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers," provides the address, phone and fax numbers, and electronic ordering information, where available, for each publisher and supplier.) Materials (various sources from which one might obtain the required materials) Readers must contact publishers/suppliers for complete and up-to-date ordering information, since prices are subject to change and materials may also change with revised editions. The prices given in this chapter are based on information from publishers and suppliers but are not meant to represent the full range of ordering options. Indexes of Curriculum Materials The multiple indexes on pp. 449-78 allow easy access to the information in this guide. Various aspects of the curriculum materials—including titles, topics addressed in each unit, and grade levels—are the focus of seven separate indexes. For example, titles and entry numbers are listed in the "Title Index" on pp. 450-54. The "Index of Authors, Series, and Curriculum Projects," on pp. 455-57, provides entry numbers of any annotated titles in a particular series. teaching activities; and discusses the release of specimens. Appendixes provide information on commercial suppliers of live animals and lists of state agencies that may provide information on laws or regulations regarding the collection, use, and humane treatment of animals in the classroom. Price: $29.95 (ISBN 1-879373-58-0). Publisher/supplier: Roberts Rinehart. Materials: Available locally. 2.47 Behavioral Research: 7-12 Teacher's Guide. San Diego, Calif.: Sea World, 1992. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Behavioral Research, a 20-page resource guide, contains information and guidelines for teaching students how to formally research a readily accessible animal, pose a behavioral question, and then make extensive observations of the animal's behavior. Specifically, the guide explains how to construct an "ethogram"—a detailed chart of behaviors that an animal may exhibit—and how to carry out 6 sampling methods that can be used to study behaviors. The sampling methods are these: (1) ad libitum sampling (for informal observations), (2) focal sampling (for studying 1 animal in a group), (3) all-occurrences-of-some-behaviors sampling (for recording a selected portion of an animal's behavior), (4) sequence sampling (for recording a sequence of events), (5) instantaneous sampling (for recording an animal's activity at

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science preset time intervals), and (6) one/zero sampling (for scoring the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a selected behavior within a set period of time). For each of these methods, a sample of a completed data sheet and a reproducible copy of the blank sheet are provided. The guide includes a description of the scientific method as it applies to conducting behavioral research. Price: $6. Publisher/supplier: Sea World of Florida. Materials: Available locally. 2.48 Biotechnology: The Technology of Life. 2nd ed. Douglas Dawson, Stacey Hill, and Jill Rulfs, eds. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1995. Recommended grade level: K-8+. The sourcebook Biotechnology: The Technology of Life, developed by the Massachusetts Biotechnology Research Institute, contains about 85 classroom activities, lesson plans, experiments, visual aids, and other reproducible support materials designed to teach science concepts related to biotechnology. ("Biotechnology" is defined in the sourcebook as "the use of organisms and their products for industrial purposes.") Intended to be used in any order and to support a wide variety of lessons, the materials are organized in 12 sections, by subject: (1) what science is, (2) what biotechnology is, (3) the characteristics of living versus nonliving things, (4) biodiversity, (5) cell biology, (6) enzymes, (7) genetics, (8) molecular biology concepts, (9) molecular biology techniques, (10) recombinant DNA, (11) immunology, and (12) bioethics. Among the activities in Biotechnology, for example, students observe the behavior of dissolving sponge-animal capsules under a variety of conditions to learn basic forms of science observation, data collection, discrimination, and data analysis. They experiment with paper and column chromatography and build an inexpensive agarose gel electrophoresis box to help them understand molecular biology techniques. They participate in a cut-and-paste activity to learn about gene splicing and recombination. Although the activities and lesson plans are designated according to grade level, they can be modified for use at different grade levels. Information on preparation, materials needed, and topics for discussion are included. Several of the student handouts feature cartoon explanations of phenomena—such as what is inside a cell, how enzymes work, and the process of protein synthesis. Price: $31.95 (ISBN 0-7872-0565-6). Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally. 2.49 Bottle Biology. Paul H. Williams. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1993. Recommended grade level: 1-8. Bottle Biology offers creative ways to teach science concepts and process skills using the ubiquitous 2-liter plastic soda bottle. Students build, fill, observe, and explore the bottle, which acts as a decomposition column, a fermentation chamber, a sedimentation bottle, a soil column, a fruit fly trap and breeder, a predator-prey column, a TerrAqua column, and an ecocolumn. Suggested activities and experiments are provided for each type of column. Examples of activities include making pH indicators, building a terrarium to house carnivorous plants, building a tropical rainforest ecocolumn, and constructing a bottle microscope. Instructions on using empty 35-mm film canisters in experiments on germination, gravitropism, and phototropism are also included. Each of Bottle Biology's 10 chapters features background information. Detailed instructions and illustrations, activities, and teaching tips are provided. An annotated bibliography is included. Price: $15.95 (ISBN 0-7872-0132-4). Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally. 2.50 Cranial Creations in Life Science: Interdisciplinary and Cooperative Activities. Charles R. Downing and Owen L. Miller. Walch Reproducible Books. Portland, Maine: Walch, 1990. Recommended grade level: 7-8. Cranial Creations presents 45 cross-disciplinary exercises that encourage the development of students' critical-thinking skills—for example, analysis, synthesis, extrapolation, and interpretation. Designed to be woven into the teaching of life science courses during the year, these activities cover a wide range of subjects: the scientific method, genetics, microbiology, cell biology, zoology, evolutionary patterns, human biology, botany, and ecology. Among the activities, for example, students write a scientifically accurate essay from the point of view of a bug, they create a cartoon that illustrates the definition of a term used in the field of botany, and they classify a collection of pictures and explain their classification system. Students also research and describe the structures that a goldfish passes through when it is swallowed by a human, and they draw and describe the "perfect" animal for a specific environment. Each activity in Cranial Creations in Life Science includes a reproducible student sheet and directions for the teacher. Most exercises require very few supplies. Price: $20.95 (ISBN 0-8251-2498-0). Publisher/supplier: Walch. Materials: Available locally.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 2.51 Earthworms. Elaine Pascoe. Nature Close-Up series. Woodbridge, Conn.: Blackbirch Press, 1997. Recommended grade level: 6-8. This slim hardcover book, illustrated with engaging close-up color photographs, teaches students about earthworms and how they contribute to healthy soil. Earthworms offers basic background information about different types of earthworms, their anatomy, and their life cycle. It includes directions for 5 simple experiments. For example, students investigate how earthworms react to light, what they eat, and whether earthworms help plants grow. Earthworms offers guidelines for collecting earthworms and caring for them in earthworm "hotels" or compost bins. Sources are listed for obtaining the earthworms and other supplies needed for the activities. The experiments in the book have brief directions but no background information; a list of possible results and conclusions for the activities is included. Price: $16.95 (ISBN 1-56711-177-7). Publisher/supplier: Blackbirch Press. Materials: Available locally. 2.52 Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas series. Burlington, Vt.: National Gardening Association, 1995. Recommended grade level: 6-8. The booklet Exploring Classroom Hydroponics provides basic information on what hydroponics is and how it works. It includes ideas, tips, and procedures for setting up different hydroponic systems and for helping students discover hydroponic concepts on their own. Included are simple diagrams and explanations of 7 hydroponic systems for the classroom (basic wick, milk carton and rock wool, soda bottle, floating Styrofoam raft, basic ebb and flow, simple straw aeration, and Plexiglas slants). The booklet provides short activities for students to do at "ministations" to explore some of the key factors—such as nutrient composition, pH, evaporation, and light—that affect hydroponic setups. Ideas for student investigations are given. Rather than being a complete "how-to" guide, Exploring Classroom Hydroponics synthesizes ideas from teachers who have used hydroponics in the classroom. Teachers may choose to develop further the directions for the activities suggested for classroom use. The booklet provides tips on choosing and nurturing plants, a recipe for a home-made nutrient mix, and a list of resources and suppliers. Price: $7.95 (ISBN 0-915873-36-2). Publisher/supplier: National Gardening Association. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.53 Exploring with Wisconsin Fast Plants. Paul H. Williams, Richard P. Green, and Coe M. Williams, Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin, 1989. Recommended grade level: 3-7. Learning about plant growth and development is the focus of Exploring with Wisconsin Fast Plants. Wisconsin Fast Plants (specially bred members of the cabbage and mustard families) have a life cycle of 35 to 40 days and can be grown in the classroom under continuous fluorescent light. The book is organized in 5 sections, which contain (1) basic information for teachers using Fast Plants for the first time, including illustrated growing instructions, tips, troubleshooting suggestions, and ideas for subsequent investigations; (2) explorations pertaining to events and stages of the Brassica life cycle; (3) additional explorations in plant physiology and ecology; (4) extensions, stories, modeling ideas, and games; and (5) supplementary materials for teachers. Process skills are embedded throughout the unit. Students are encouraged to generate many of the experimentation ideas. In Exploring with Wisconsin Fast Plants, each experiment follows a science exploration flowchart and includes teaching concepts, background information, and step-by-step illustrated instructions. Price: $19.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.54 Getting to Know the Whales. Larry Wade. Whales in the Classroom Presents series. Minnetonka, Minn.: Singing Rock Press, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8. Getting to Know the Whales includes in-depth information on whales, their characteristics, their evolution, and their status. Many classroom activities are provided. For example, students use a dichotomous key to identify drawings of various whales and dolphins, assemble a flip book that shows lunge feeding, graph the average dive duration of 5 different types of whales, analyze data from a blue whale sighting, and plot migration data on a map. Getting to Know the Whales has numerous charts, drawings and photographs. Other features of the book include interviews with biologists who study whales and information about whaling and conservation. The book is suitable for students learning about whales for the first time as well as for those who are seriously considering the study of whales as a career. It includes a list of "adopt-a-whale" programs and a bibliography. Price: $16.95 (ISBN 0-9629395-2-8). Publisher/supplier: Singing Rock Press. Materials: Available locally.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 2.55 The Great Bone Mysteries. James Robert Taris. Riverview, Fla.: Idea Factory, 1993. Recommended grade level: 6-7. The Great Bone Mysteries contains background information and 15 simple mysteries that help students learn about the human skeleton. They learn about bones by first constructing a generic paper skeleton and reading information about gender, age, and other factors that account for visible differences in human bones. Then, using this knowledge together with clues that are provided, students try to identify the sex, height, approximate age, and cause of death for 15 mystery individuals. Clues consist, for example, of a description of the bones found at the scene, information about clothing the victim was wearing, or the time of death. As students work through the clues, they discuss them in class and record their answers on reproducible sheets. Tips are provided for discussing the clues and for maintaining sensitivity to students' feelings and experiences with regard to death (including any experiences they may have had with the death of a family member). The book has an answer key and a short bibliography. Price: $10.95 (ISBN 1-885041-09-8). Publisher/supplier: Idea Factory. Materials: Available locally. 2.56 GrowLab: A Complete Guide to Gardening in the Classroom. Eve Pranis and Jack Hale. Burlington, Vt.: National Gardening Association, 1988. Recommended grade level: K-6. GrowLab: A Complete Guide to Gardening in the Classroom is a resource book designed to help teachers plan, plant, and maintain an indoor garden; it can be used to support a variety of curriculum units on plants (see also, 2.57). This volume provides complete instructions for setting up and cultivating an indoor garden, maintaining a healthy environment, tackling pests and other problems, maintaining equipment, and building support for classroom gardening in the school and the community. It also provides suggestions—including activities, lessons, projects, and experiments—for integrating gardening into all areas of the curriculum. Students might, for example, grow an indoor gift-plant garden; write, illustrate, and publish a collection of garden stories; or study the contribution of foods of Native Americans and of other cultures in shaping our history and diet. The appendixes in Growlab offer a wide range of information, including instructions and diagrams for building a GrowLab, and a guide to growing and harvesting various crops indoors. Several reproducible student worksheets, such as a plant growth chart, are provided. An annotated reference section lists books, audiovisual materials, organizational resources, and suppliers of gardening equipment and seeds. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-915873-31-1), $19.95. Full-size supply kit, $139.00. Compact supply kit, $99.00. Publisher/supplier: National Gardening Association. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.57 GrowLab: Activities for Growing Minds. Eve Pranis and Joy Cohen. Burlington, Vt.: National Gardening Association, 1990. Recommended grade level: K-6. Growlab: Activities for Growing Minds is a curriculum guide offering dozens of ideas and activities relating to plants, gardening, and the diversity of life; students can do the activities as they work on an indoor classroom garden (see 2.56). The Growlab activities, which are presented in 4 chapters, help students explore plants' basic needs and structures, learn about plant life cycles and reproduction, find out how plants adapt to different environmental conditions, and learn how people both use and affect plants around the world. Among the activities, for example, students observe similarities and differences among plant leaves and consider why leaves are important for most plants, conduct classroom studies about acid rain, and try to simulate an indoor tropical rainforest. The book also includes suggestions of horticultural, conceptual, or topical themes for organizing plant-based activities. Some activities in Growlab are long-term projects; others can be done sequentially as a series of shorter science explorations. Each activity includes background information, step-by-step procedures, a list showing time and materials required, cross-curricular connections, and extensions. Appendixes offer a wide range of information, including reproducible student activity sheets, an annotated list of resource books, and suppliers of seeds. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-915873-32-X), $24.95. Full-size supply kit, $139.00. Compact supply kit, $99.00. Publisher/supplier: National Gardening Association. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.58 Living in Water: An Aquatic Science Curriculum for Grades 5-7. 3rd ed. National Aquarium in Baltimore. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1997. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Living in Water is a study of water, water environments, and the plants and animals that live in water—in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science The unit's 50 activities are in 6 sections on the following subjects: (1) aquatic habitats; (2) substances (such as salts, oxygen, minerals, and pollutants) that dissolve in water; (3) the consequences of temperature changes for plants and animals living in aquatic environments; (4) the physical characteristics of water habitats that determine where plants and animals live; (5) the behavior of light in water and the consequences for the plants and animals that live there; and (6) research projects and programs. Among the unit's activities, for example, students interpret experimental data about the effect of temperature on the rate at which plants use oxygen, compare temperature changes in water and air, compare the way things float or sink in fresh- and saltwater, and experiment with blue goggles to learn why color patterns that are easy to see in air may be hard to see under water. In addition to the activities, each section of Living in Water provides background information for the teacher, examples of completed student worksheets, and extension activities. Information on preparation of materials and sources of supplies, as well as masters for the reproducible student worksheets, are included. Price: $10 (ISBN 0-7872-4366-3). Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.59 Magnificent Microworld Adventures. Mike Wood. Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science (AIMS) series. Fresno, Calif.: AIMS Education Foundation, 1995. Recommended grade level: 4-8+. During the 25 activities in Magnificent Microworld Adventures, students develop skills using a microscope and make accurate observations and drawings of animal cells, plant cells, and protozoa. During the first group of activities, students become familiar with a hand lens, looking at mealworms, nightcrawlers, grasshoppers, and sea stars. Then they learn the parts, function, and care of a compound microscope; they prepare wet-mount slides; and they make drawings and notes of their observations and measure the field of view of a microscope at various powers of magnification. The microscope-centered activities during the rest of the unit include, for example, observing and drawing the structures in onion cells, seeing how cork cells are different from living plant cells, making a hay infusion and observing the emergence and growth of protozoa over time, looking at the organisms living in a drop of pondwater, and observing the circulation of blood through the tail of a goldfish. Each activity in Magnificent Microworld Adventures includes background information for the teacher; procedures, discussion questions, and extensions; and reproducible student pages containing instructions, data sheets, and graphs. Each activity also has a "guiding documents" section, which lists the activity's relevance to specific NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) standards and to Project 2061 Benchmarks (developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science). Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 1-881431-53-3), $16.95. Publisher/supplier: AIMS Education Foundation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.60 The Microcosmos Curriculum Guide to Exploring Microbial Space. The Microcosmos Team (Douglas Zook and others). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1992. Recommended grade level: 4-8+. The Microcosmos Curriculum Guide to Exploring Microbial Space, a guide to 29 activities, focuses students' attention on the world of microbes and microbial space. Among the activities, for example, students use inexpensive microscopes to look at different fibers and strands of everyday objects; they go "microfishing" for organisms from a classroom "pond"; and they learn about diatoms (where they are found, what they look like, and how we use them). Students also create a skyscraper of mud, teeming with microbes. They explore fermentation by growing fungal microbes (yeast) and then making root beer. Designed to be integrated into mainstream life science subjects such as photosynthesis, evolution, or ecology, these wide-ranging activities require no elaborate equipment or materials. The activities in the guide, which is in 3-ring-binder format, can be completed in any order but are presented in a recommended sequence. A glossary and a materials list are included as appendixes. Price: $31.95 (ISBN 0-7872-0133-2). Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.61 The Molecular Model of DNA and Its Replication Kit. Ronkonkoma, N.Y.: Lab-Aids, no date. Recommended grade level: 8+. This simple kit for 2 activities is designed to help students learn about the structure of DNA and how it replicates. The kit contains 12 packets of colored plastic pieces—students use them to construct a model of a DNA

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science molecule—and 2 student worksheets with background information and instructions. In the first activity, students construct a DNA "ladder." In the second, they unzip their double helix model and complete 2 new DNA helix ladders. A 4-page teacher's guide provides background information and answers to questions on the student worksheets. Price: $44.50. Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch. Materials: Available in kit. 2.62 Order and Diversity in the Living World: Teaching Taxonomy and Systematics in Schools. Jorge V. Crisci, Joseph D. McInerney, and Patricia J. McWethy. Reston, Va.: National Association of Biology Teachers, 1993. Recommended grade level: 1-8+. Order and Diversity in the Living World is a small book that presents a rationale for classroom study of biological diversity and the relationships between different organisms. It also offers a brief review of the current state of diversity and rate of species extinction, identifies standards that should encourage changes in the way systematics is taught in the classroom, and gives directions for 10 sample activities that involve students in "doing" systematics in the classroom rather than simply reading about the nature of this subdiscipline. Among the activities, for example, students learn about biological classification by classifying music. They design and construct a dichotomous key. They also develop phylogenetic trees to show the evolutionary relatedness of common household hardware "organisms." They use a model of DNA hybridization to investigate the degree of relatedness of 3 organisms (chimpanzee, human, and gorilla). Each activity includes background information and teaching procedures; some include a list of references. Price: $10 (ISBN 0-941212-11-4). Publisher/supplier: National Association of Biology Teachers. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.63 Osmosis and Diffusion Kit. Ronkonkoma, N.Y.: Lab-Aids, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8. The Osmosis and Diffusion Kit allows students to observe the characteristics of a differentially permeable membrane. Students fill a membrane tube with glucose solution and liquid starch, place the tube in a container of water to which Lugol's solution has been added, and then observe any changes in the contents of the tube or the liquid in the container. They also test for the presence of glucose—both at the beginning and at the end of the activity. Completing the activity, students find that some substances will have passed through the membrane, some will not have, and some will have passed through the membrane in both directions simultaneously. Results showing osmosis—the diffusion of water through a membrane—may take more than one class period. The kit includes student worksheets and materials. A 4-page teacher's guide provides background information and answers to questions on the student worksheets. Price: $44.20 Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch. Materials: Available in kit. 2.64 Owl Pellet Study Kit. Ronkonkoma, N.Y.: Lab-Aids, 1995. Recommended grade level: 6-8+. The Owl Pellet Study Kit contains materials for an activity that can serve as a stimulus for the study of skeletal systems and food chains. During the activity, students dissect owl pellets and attempt to identify the animals whose skeletons are found in the pellets. Students record data about the kinds and numbers of skeletons they find, and they compare various bones from these skeletons. In an optional activity, students construct a diagram of a food web with the barn owl at the highest trophic level. The kit includes 15 owl pellets, 15 dissecting needles, and 30 2-page student worksheets. A 6-page teacher's guide provides background information and answers to questions on the student worksheets. Price: $41.50 Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch. Materials: Available in kit. 2.65 Plant Biology Science Projects. David R. Hershey. Best Science Projects for Young Adults series. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Plant Biology Science Projects, written for students age 12 and older, provides directions for 21 inexpensive seed plant experiments. Most of the projects deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture, featuring such topics as transpiration, photosynthesis, root and stem development, hydroponics, nutrient requirements, and fertilizers. Among the activities, for example, students determine how dicot seedlings are affected by the removal of cotyledons. They investigate the effect of artificial acid rain on plant growth. They also find out whether more expensive houseplant fertilizers make plants grow better. The introduction to Plant Biology Science Projects gives an overview of how to approach a plant biology project. It addresses such topics as standards in plant experiments, choosing a plant for a science project,

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science materials, record keeping, and interpreting and presenting results. Each experiment includes an introduction, statement of purpose, list of materials, procedures, expected results, explanation of results, and suggestions for further investigation. The book's 6 appendixes provide information on preparing plastic soda bottles for the activities, construction of fluorescent lighting systems, hydroponic equipment and nutrient solutions, seedlings and rooted cuttings for hydroponics, suppliers of needed materials, and outdated or inaccurate classroom plant projects to avoid. Price: $12.95 (ISBN 0-471-04983-2). Publisher/supplier: Wiley. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.66 Project WILD Aquatic Education Activity Guide. 2nd ed. Bethesda, Md.: Project WILD, 1992. Recommended grade level: K-8+. Project WILD Aquatic Education Activity Guide is part of an interdisciplinary conservation and environmental education program. The guide's 40 activities are organized in 7 sections: (1) "Awareness and Appreciation"; (2) "Diversity of Values"; (3) "Ecological Principles"; (4) "Management and Conservation"; (5) "People, Culture and Wildlife"; (6) "Trends, Issues and Consequences"; and (7) "Responsible Human Actions." Examples of activities in the guide include designing a habitat suitable for aquatic wildlife to survive in a zoo or an aquarium, drawing life-size replicas of whales on school grounds, simulating the effects of the changing technology of fishing on fish populations, and producing a newspaper that features aquatic information and issues. A glossary, a conceptual framework, and a guide to the ecosystem concept are included among the guide's 26 appendixes. Price: Attendance at Project WILD Workshop. Publisher/supplier: Project WILD. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.67 Project WILD: K-12 Activity Guide. 2nd ed. Bethesda, Md.: Project WILD, 1992. Recommended grade level: K-8+. Project WILD: K-12 Activity Guide is part of an interdisciplinary conservation and environmental education program. The guide's 113 activities are organized in 7 sections: (1) "Awareness and Appreciation"; (2) "Diversity of Wildlife Values"; (3) "Ecological Principles"; (4) "Management and Conservation"; (5) "People, Culture and Wildlife"; (6) "Trends, Issues and Consequences"; and (7) "Responsible Human Actions." Examples of activities in the guide include identifying similarities and differences in the basic needs of ants and humans; forming an interconnected circle of students to demonstrate the components of a habitat; creating murals showing the major stages of pond succession; and working with state highway and vegetative maps to determine relationships between rainfall, vegetation, and animal habitats. A glossary, a conceptual framework, and a guide to the ecosystem concept are included among the guide's 23 appendixes. Price: Attendance at Project WILD workshop. Publisher/supplier: Project WILD. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.68 Science Projects about the Human Body. Robert Gardner. Science Projects series. Hillside, N.J.: Enslow, 1993. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Science Projects about the Human Body, 1 of 6 books in a series written for students, contains 30 simple activities about the human body and how it functions. Among the activities, for example, students measure the volume of air they breathe in and out in a normal breath; they locate different taste receptors on the tongue; and they test people to see how good their peripheral vision is. In other activities, students compare the strengths of muscle pairs using a spring-type bathroom scale, and they investigate whether people shrink in height during the course of a day. Designed to be student-directed, many of the stand-alone activities in Science Projects about the Human Body could be done at home or as teacher demonstrations, or used as the basis for science fair projects. The activities are narrative in form; the text contains questions to help guide the inquiry. Brief explanations for the results observed in the experiments are provided in the text. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-89490-443-4). Publisher/supplier: Enslow. Materials: Available locally. 2.69 Seeds and Seedlings. Elaine Pascoe. Nature Close-Up series. Woodbridge, Conn.: Blackbirch Press, 1997. Recommended grade level: 5-7. Seeds and Seedlings, illustrated with many close-up color photographs, is designed to teach students about seeds and plant growth. It offers basic background information on how seeds form, grow, and travel; it gives simple guidelines for planting seeds and raising seedlings under different conditions; and it provides directions for 7 experiments or activities that students can do at home or at school. For example, students investigate the effects of water or temperature on seed growth, the importance of cotyledons, and the question of whether plants can grow

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science around obstacles. Brief directions, without background information, are provided for the activities. A list of possible results and conclusions is included. Price: $16.95 (ISBN 1-56711-178-5). Publisher/supplier: Blackbirch Press. Materials: Available locally. 2.70 Sun Awareness for Educating Today's Youth. Project SAFETY for Middle School Science. Houston, Tex.: University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and Texas Cancer Council, 1993. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Sun Awareness for Educating Today's Youth contains 3 50-minute lessons designed to increase students' awareness of the incidence and causes of different types of skin cancer and to inform them of steps they can take to lower their chances of getting the disease. The unit also introduces students to other health risks associated with sun exposure, such as aging, cataracts, and immunosuppression. A variety of optional activities is included. For example, students may develop an advertisement on sun safety, look at a globe and discuss the countries with the highest incidence of skin cancer and their relationship to the Equator, or use sun-sensitive paper to test the effectiveness of sunscreens. The complete unit in a box includes a teacher's guide, 37 slides with graphic photos of individuals with skin cancer, worksheets and handouts (including a risk assessment instrument), a poster, a 15-minute video of physicians and teenagers discussing sun behavior, and assessment materials (pre- and post-tests). Price: $69.50. Publisher/supplier: University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Materials: Available locally, or in kit. 2.71 What Does DNA Look Like? EDVO-Kit. West Bethesda, Md.: EDVOTEK, 1995. Recommended grade level: 8+. What Does DNA Look Like? is a kit containing lab materials and instructions for an easy but dramatic DNA spooling activity. Students layer cold isopropanol on top of a buffer solution containing DNA, place the tip of a glass rod in the solution just below the line separating the 2 solutions, and then twist the rod in a circular motion to spool out and collect the DNA. They also stain the spooled DNA with a methylene blue solution. The kit, which must be stored in a refrigerator, includes concentrated chromosomal DNA and buffer solutions, as well as pipettes, glass rods, and plastic beakers. It provides 2 paragraphs of background information on DNA spooling, student experimental procedures, and guidelines for the teacher. Some additional materials are required, such as graduated cylinders, test tubes, isopropanol, and distilled water. The kit is designed for 30 students working in groups of 2 or 3. Price: $37. Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch/VWR Scientific. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.72 What Seed Is It?—A Hands-on Classroom Project. Newton, Kans.: Young Naturalist, 1990. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Using What Seed Is It?, students explore the importance of tree seeds. During the 7 hands-on activities in this kit, students chart the complete development of a seed and discover the different means of seed dispersal. They observe and record the sprouting of seeds, use a dichotomous seed key to identify unknown seeds that come in the kit, learn to distinguish between fruits and seeds, and collect and identify seeds from their own neighborhood. The kit contains 13 identified tree-seed specimens, 26 unidentified tree-seed specimens (2 each of the identified specimens), a seed key for identifying the unknown seeds, a packet of alfalfa seeds, and a teacher's guide. The specimens provided are the actual tree fruits with the seeds enclosed inside the fruit. The types of tree fruits in the kit include nuts, berries, pods, wings, and cones. Price: $25.95. Publisher/supplier: Young Naturalist. Materials: Available from Young Naturalist. 2.73 Whose DNA Was Left Behind? EDVO-Kit. West Bethesda, Md.: EDVOTEK, 1995. Recommended grade level: 8+. Whose DNA Was Left Behind? is a kit containing lab materials and instructions for an activity that shows students how DNA fingerprinting technology works and how scientists and police use this technology to identify a suspect from evidence left behind at a crime scene. Students load simulated DNA samples (dyes) from a murder scene and simulated DNA samples from 2 suspects into an agarose gel. Then they run the samples through an electrophoresis apparatus and analyze the resulting fragments for particular patterns. When students read and analyze the simulated DNA gel fragments, they are able to determine the correct suspect in a murder case. The objective of the experiment is to demonstrate that each person has a unique pattern within his or her DNA. To do the activity, students need some knowledge of what DNA is and what it does. This activity takes about 100 minutes (or less, if the buffers and gels

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science are made ahead of time). The kit, which must be stored in refrigerator, includes background information on DNA fingerprinting; 6 simulated DNA samples (2 from the crime scene and 4 from 2 different suspects); bottles of electrophoresis buffer and agarose; and micropipets. Also included are procedures for student experiments and guidelines for teachers, as well as a document on conducting agarose gel electrophoresis. Some other materials are required, such as an electrophoresis apparatus (M-12 or equivalent), a power supply, and distilled water. Price: $45. Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch/VWR Scientific. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.74 Why Do People Look Different? EDVO-Kit. West Bethesda, Md.: EDVOTEK, 1995. Recommended grade level: 8+. Why Do People Look Different? is a kit containing lab materials and instructions for an activity that shows how DNA fingerprinting can be used to detect the genes inherited by children. Students load simulated DNA samples (dyes) from 2 brown-eyed parents and 4 children into wells in an agarose gel. Then they run the samples through an electrophoresis apparatus and analyze the results using their knowledge of Mendelian genetics. The object of the activity is to detect the alleles (genes) for eye color that are inherited by the children. The same exercise, however, would also apply if one were testing whether a person had a genetic disease or was a carrier for one. This activity takes about 100 minutes (or less, if the buffers and gels are made ahead of time). The kit, which must be stored in a refrigerator, includes bottles of electrophoresis buffer and agarose, micropipets, and 6 simulated DNA samples. Also included are background information on DNA fingerprinting, procedures for student experiments, and guidelines for teachers, as well as a document on conducting agarose gel electrophoresis. Some other materials are required, such as an electrophoresis apparatus (M-12 or equivalent), a power supply, and distilled water. Price: $45. Publisher/supplier: Sargent-Welch/VWR Scientific. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.