Resources for Teaching Middle School Science



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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Resources for Teaching Middle School Science

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science NATIONAL SCIENCE RESOURCES CENTER The National Science Resources Center (NSRC) is operated by the National Academy of Sciences/National Academy of Engineering/Institute of Medicine and the Smithsonian Institution to improve the teaching of science in the nation's schools. The NSRC collects and disseminates information about exemplary teaching resources, develops and disseminates curriculum materials, and sponsors outreach activities, specifically in the areas of leadership development and technical assistance, to help school districts develop and sustain hands-on science programs. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 in accordance with the will of Englishman James Smithson, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America, "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." The Smithsonian has since evolved into an institution devoted to public education, research, and national service in the arts, sciences, and history. This independent federal establishment is the world's largest museum complex and is responsible for public and scholarly activities, exhibitions, and research projects nationwide and overseas. Among the objectives of the Smithsonian is to apply its unique resources to enhance preschool through grade 12 education and adult education. I. Michael Heyman is secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Resources for Teaching Middle School Science National Science Resources Center Smithsonian Institution National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: Resources for Teaching Middle School Science was developed by the National Science Resources Center. The views expressed in this book are solely those of its contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, the Smithsonian Institution, or The Merck Institute for Science Education. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Science Resources Center (U.S.). Resources for teaching middle school science / National Science Resources Center. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN 0-309-05781-7 (pbk.) 1. Science—Study and teaching (Secondary) 2. Curriculum planning. I. Title. Q181.N3862 1998 07.1'273—dc21 98-12987 Printed in the United States of America © 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. The 14-page NSRC science instructional materials review form, "Evaluation Criteria for Middle School Science Curriculum Materials," in appendix B may be reproduced for educational purposes. No other part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use without permission in writing from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. National Science Resources Center Arts and Industries Building, Room 1201 Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. 20560 National Academy Press Sally Stanfield, Editorial Coordination Francesca Moghari, Cover Design Liz Clark, Isely &/or Clark Design, Book Design Linda C. Humphrey, Page Layout Douglas Lapp, Executive Director Sally Goetz Shuler, Deputy Director for Development, External Relations, and Outreach Evelyn M. Ernst, Information Dissemination Director Dean Trackman, Publications Director Project Development Team Evelyn M. Ernst, Director Barbara K. Johnson, Research Associate Dorothy Sawicki, Project Managing Editor Rita C. Warpeha, Resource/Database Specialist Max-Karl Winkler, Cover Illustrations Abigail Porter, Writer Consultant Cover and photo credits appear on p. 479.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Major support for Resources for Teaching Middle School Science was provided by a grant from The Merck Institute for Science Education

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science NATIONAL SCIENCE RESOURCES CENTER ADVISORY BOARD Chair JOSEPH A. MILLER, JR. Chief Technology Officer and Senior Vice President for Research and Development, DuPont Company, Wilmington, Del. Members ANN BAY Director, Office of Education, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. DEANNA BANKS BEANE Project Director, Youth ALIVE, Association of Science-Technology Centers, Washington, D.C. FRED P. CORSON Vice President and Director, Research and Development, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich. GOÉRY DELACÔTE Executive Director, The Exploratorium, San Francisco, Calif. JOANN E. DEMARIA Teacher, Hutchison Elementary School, Herndon, Va. PETER DOW Director of Education, Buffalo Museum of Science, Buffalo, N.Y. HUBERT M. DYASI Director, The Workshop Center, City College School of Education (The City University of New York), New York, N.Y. BERNARD S. FINN Curator, Division of Information Technology and Society, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. ROBERT M. FITCH President, Fitch & Associates, Taos, N.M. JERRY P. GOLLUB John and Barbara Bush Professor in the Natural Sciences, Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. ANA M. GUZMÁN Vice President, Cypress Creek Campus and Institutional Campus Development, Austin Community College, Austin, Tex. ANDERS HEDBERG Director, Center for Science Education, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, N.J. RICHARD HINMAN Senior Vice President (retired), Central Research Division, Pfizer Inc., Groton, Conn. DAVID JENKINS Associate Director for Interpretive Programs, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. MILDRED E. JONES Educational Consultant, Baldwin, N.Y. JOHN W. LAYMAN Director, Science Teaching Center, and Professor, Departments of Education and Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Md. LEON M. LEDERMAN Chair, Board of Trustees, Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science, Chicago, Ill., and Director Emeritus, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Ill. SARAH A. LINDSEY Science Coordinator, Midland Public Schools, Midland, Mich. LYNN MARGULIS Distinguished University Professor, Department of Botany, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. TED A. MAXWELL Associate Director, Collections and Research, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. MARA MAYOR Director, The Smithsonian Associates, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. JOHN A. MOORE Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Calif. CARLO PARRAVANO Director, The Merck Institute for Science Education, Rahway, N.J. ROBERT W. RIDKY Program Director, Division of Undergraduate Education/Geosciences, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Va. RUTH O. SELIG Executive Officer for Programs, Office of the Provost, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. MAXINE F. SINGER President, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. ROBERT D. SULLIVAN Associate Director for Public Programs, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. GERALD F. WHEELER Executive Director, National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, Va. RICHARD L. WHITE Executive Vice President, Bayer Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa., and President of Fibers, Organics, and Rubber Division, and President and Chief Executive Officer, Bayer Rubber Inc., Canada PAUL H. WILLIAMS Atwood Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. KAREN L. WORTH Faculty, Wheelock College, and Senior Associate, Urban Elementary Science Project, Education Development Center, Newton, Mass. Ex Officio Members E. WILLIAM COLGLAZIER Executive Officer, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. RODGER BYBEE Executive Director, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. J. DENNIS O'CONNOR Provost, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. BARBARA SCHNEIDER Executive Assistant for Programs, Office of the Provost, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science CONTENTS FOREWORD   ix PREFACE   xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS   xiii PART 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE GUIDE   1 PART 2. MIDDLE SCHOOL SCIENCE CURRICULUM MATERIALS     PART 2   OVERVIEW   8 1•   PHYSICAL SCIENCE   14     Core Materials   14     Supplementary Units   30     Science Activity Books   46 2•   LIFE SCIENCE   71     Core Materials   71     Supplementary Units   86     Science Activity Books   106 3•   ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE   117     Core Materials   117     Supplementary Units   121     Science Activity Books   143 4•   EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE   155     Core Materials   155     Supplementary Units   165     Science Activity Books   185 5•   MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCE   199     Core Materials   199     Supplementary Units   227     Science Activity Books   244 6•   SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE AND MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMS   257 PART 3. REFERENCE MATERIALS     PART 3   OVERVIEW   264 7•   BOOKS ON TEACHING SCIENCE   268 8•   SCIENCE BOOK LISTS AND RESOURCE GUIDES   282 9•   PERIODICALS   293

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science PART 4. ANCILLARY RESOURCES     PART 4   OVERVIEW   306 10•   MUSEUMS AND OTHER PLACES TO VISIT   310     Complete Regional Listing   310     Select Annotated Listing   320 11•   PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS   372 APPENDIXES     A• PUBLISHERS AND SUPPLIERS   396 B• NSRC EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR CURRICULUM MATERIALS   409 C• NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS: CONTENT STANDARDS FOR LEVELS 5-8   425 D• OVERVIEWS OF CORE AND SUPPLEMENTARY PROGRAMS WITH TITLES ANNOTATED IN THIS GUIDE   441 THE INDEXES   449     • TITLE INDEX (All Chapters)   450     • INDEX OF AUTHORS, SERIES, AND CURRICULUM PROJECTS (All Chapters)   455     • GENERAL SUBJECT INDEX (Front Matter, Introductions, Overviews, Chapters 6-9, Appendixes)   458     • INDEX OF TOPICS IN CURRICULUM MATERIALS (Chapters 1-5)   460     • INDEX OF CONTENT STANDARDS ADDRESSED IN CORE AND SUPPLEMENTARY CURRICULUM MATERIALS (Chapters 1-5)   467     • INDEX OF GRADE LEVELS OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS BY SCIENTIFIC AREA (Chapters 1-5)   469     • INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC AREAS OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS BY GRADE LEVEL (Chapters 1-5)   471     • INDEX OF ANCILLARY RESOURCES (Places to Visit/Organizations; Chapters 10-11)   473

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science FOREWORD Educators, school administrators, and state and local officials are developing science programs consistent with the National Science Education Standards (NSES) to achieve the national goal of "scientific literacy for all students." Selecting effective standards-based curriculum materials from the wide array of available resources is a key step in this process. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science, produced by the National Science Resources Center (NSRC), provides authoritative, up-to-date information that greatly simplifies this task. This new volume is the second in a series of resource guides that the NSRC is developing to assist with the teaching of science in kindergarten through twelfth grade. Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science was published in 1996. In the future, the NSRC plans to develop additional resource guides for high school science teachers. This NSRC guide provides extensive, annotated bibliographies of middle school curriculum materials in the major scientific disciplines. These materials were evaluated by panels of teachers and scientists who used carefully developed criteria based on the National Science Education Standards. (For quick reference, the NSES content standards for grades 5-8 are included in an appendix.) One of the clear messages of the standards is that the challenge of science education reform extends to all those who have an influence on science education, such as research scientists, engineers, museum curators, and government officials. In this spirit, this resource guide is designed to help science teachers find additional sources of assistance outside the classroom. The guide includes lists of local, state, and national organizations that can give assistance, such as museums, science-technology centers, and professional scientific and governmental organizations. Many of these organizations have programs and materials that can be used to enrich the teaching of science. The development of resource guides is just one of the ways that the NSRC is helping to bring about the national goal of scientific literacy for all students. Since its inception in 1985, the NSRC has had a significant impact on science education reform in school districts throughout the country through its information dissemination, materials development, and outreach programs. The NSRC's sponsoring organizations, the Smithsonian Institution and the National Academy of Sciences—along with the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine—take pride in the publication of this new resource guide and in the continuing contributions of the NSRC to the improvement of science education. BRUCE M. ALBERTS President National Academy of Sciences I. MICHAEL HEYMAN Secretary Smithsonian Institution

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science This page in the original is blank.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science PREFACE The National Science Resources Center (NSRC) is pleased to announce the publication of Resources for Teaching Middle School Science—a guide to curriculum materials and other resources for teaching science in grades six through eight. The guide is the culmination of several years of intense work. The NSRC would like to thank The Merck Institute for Science Education, which provided the major support for the development of this publication. Resources for Teaching Middle School Science is the second in the NSRC's series of resource guides for kindergarten through twelfth grade; the first was Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science, published in 1996. Although the style and structure of the two guides are the same, this volume has several new features that we believe will make it particularly valuable for middle school teachers. Some of the changes reflect the greater complexity of middle school science curriculum materials; others provide additional kinds of information about resources that are available to teachers of science in grades six through eight. Let me briefly mention some of the specific changes. Readers will find additional background information in the "Introduction to the Guide." In the section on curriculum materials, a new chapter has been added. It focuses on an important subject area for middle school—environmental science—and complements the chapters on physical, life, earth and space, and multidisciplinary and applied science. The categories in which the curriculum titles are organized—core materials, supplementary units, and science activity books—remain the same as in the elementary guide. Readers will notice that a reading level is included for the core curriculum titles. Together with the recommended grade level, which the guide also provides, the reading level can help educators gauge the appropriateness of core curriculum materials for particular groups of middle school students. As was the case with the elementary school guide, all curriculum materials annotated in this volume are "standards-based." This means that the materials were found by panels of scientists and teachers to meet the NSRC's "Evaluation Criteria for Middle School Science Curriculum Materials." These criteria are based on the goals and principles identified in the National Science Education Standards (NSES), and they address important characteristics that are stressed in the NSES—for example, inquiry, science content, pedagogy, age-appropriateness, and assessment. (The NSRC middle school evaluation criteria are reproduced in appendix B.) Two features of this middle school guide relate directly to the National Science Education Standards. First, a "Key to Content Standards" is provided in each annotation of core and supplementary material. This key identifies the specific NSES content standards that the curriculum material addresses. Second, for readers who want to refer to the full text of the relevant NSES content standards, the National Science Education Standards for grades five through eight are reprinted in appendix C. In developing this guide, the NSRC focused mainly on the evaluation of print curriculum materials. We have, however, developed a chapter entitled "Sources of Information on Educational Software and Multimedia Programs." This chapter can help teachers access reviews of computer software and other multimedia instructional resources. The sections of the guide focusing on teacher reference materials and on ancillary resources (such as museums, science and technology centers, and professional scientific associations) are in the same format as in the NSRC's

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science elementary school guide. Each of the hundreds of entries in these sections, however, includes information about programs, services, publications, and other forms of assistance specifically relevant to middle school science. The NSRC is grateful to Evelyn M. Ernst, NSRC Program Director for Information Dissemination and general editor of Resources for Teaching Middle School Science, for shepherding this guide through all stages of its development—from formulation of the evaluation criteria through panel review to publication. We would also like to thank the NSRC's parent institutions, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the Smithsonian Institution, for their support in helping the NSRC carry out this project. Our search for materials for this guide was comprehensive, and the evaluation process was extensive and thorough. We believe that this compilation will prove to be a valuable resource for middle school science teachers. We look forward to hearing from readers about the effectiveness of the guide in meeting their needs, together with any suggestions they may have for its improvement. DOUGLAS LAPP Executive Director National Science Resources Center January 1998

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Resources for Teaching Middle School Science is the first volume of its kind to focus exclusively on curriculum materials and other resources for teaching middle school science. The challenging task of producing this extensive compilation required coordinated efforts on a number of fronts. It could not have been accomplished without the hard work and dedication of a core group of staff, combined with the efforts of a large number of teachers, scientists, and other professionals. This guide was brought to fruition with generous support from The Merck Institute for Science Education, with continuing encouragement from its director, Carlo Parravano. Special thanks go to Evelyn M. Ernst, project director and general editor, for her tireless efforts in fashioning this useful and versatile guide from the vast array of diverse material submitted for consideration. Thanks also go to her staff and to the consultants who participated in the work on the volume. Research associate Barbara K. Johnson helped organize and manage the complex, structured review of hundreds of curriculum materials, and she also helped research information for all major sections of the guide. Resource/database specialist Rita C. Warpeha cataloged the materials received for review and verified the extensive array of information provided in the publishers and suppliers list in appendix A. Consultant Abigail Porter made a significant contribution to the guide by preparing the first drafts of more than 400 curriculum annotations on the basis of the reviewers' evaluations. Retha Rutkowski, reading specialist with Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia, analyzed curriculum materials for reading level. As developmental and managing editor for the project, Dorothy Sawicki participated in all aspects of the editing, scheduling, and production of the guide and drafted overview and introductory material. Providing logistical support and helping with manuscript preparation tasks during various phases of the project were Sarah Lanning, Lynn Portmann, James Munton, and Scott Stefanski. The administrative and photographic skills of Matt Smith, NSRC editorial assistant, are gratefully acknowledged. The NSRC also appreciates the cooperation of Inez Cohen, principal of Rocky Run Middle School in Chantilly, Virginia, and her school for participating in a photo shoot for the guide. The NSRC wishes to recognize the assistance of the many hundreds of organizations and individuals who contributed time and effort to the information-gathering and review stages of the manuscript. Special thanks go to the reviewers of the various parts of the manuscript: Marilyn Decker, Associate Director for Programs and Science at the Center for the Enhancement of Science and Math Education in Boston, Mass.; Charles N. Hardy, former NSRC Deputy Director for Information Dissemination, Materials Development, and Publications (1995-96); Becky Smith, former Elementary Science/Social Sciences Curriculum Materials Editor with the Mesa Public Schools in Mesa, Ariz.; and Dean Trackman, NSRC Publications Director. The NSRC also acknowledges with gratitude the technical review of the section on "Museums and Other Places to Visit" carried out by the Association of Science-Technology Centers under the direction of Ellen Griffee and Franklin Boyd. And, finally, this guide would not have been possible without the support of the many teachers and scientists who reviewed curriculum materials. Following is a list of their names and affiliations.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science CURRICULUM REVIEW PANEL GEORGIANA F. ABOKO-COLE Director, Center for Preprofessional Education, College of Arts and Sciences, Howard University, Washington, D.C. LORA ADAMS Teacher, Prince George's County Public Schools, Charles Carroll Middle School, New Carrollton, Md. JANE ALBERT Teacher, Howard County Public Schools, Mount View Middle School, Marriottsville, Md. MARJAY D. ANDERSON Professor and Chair, Comprehensive Sciences Department, Howard University, Washington, D.C. HAROLD BAER Retired, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. MARY BAILEY Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Langston Hughes Middle School, Reston, Va. GINO C. BATTISTONE Biochemist (retired), U.S. Army Institute of Dental Research, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C. PAULA BATZER Teacher, Charles County Public Schools, Piccowaxen Middle School, Newburg, Md. RICHARD BERENDZEN Professor, Department of Physics, American University, Washington, D.C. OTTO BERGMANN Professor, Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM C. BURTON Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va. LYNN CARRUBBA Teacher, Frederick County Public Schools, Monocacy Middle School, Frederick, Md. IDA CHOW Executive Officer, Society for Developmental Biology, Bethesda, Md. BARBARA CHRISTIAN Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Franklin Middle School, Chantilly, Va. ANNA COBLE Associate Professor, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Howard University, Washington, D.C. KATHRYN DAVIS Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Rocky Run Middle School, Chantilly, Va. LARRY DAVIS Computer Scientist, User Technology Associates, Department of Defense High Performance Computing Modernization Office, Arlington, Va. ROBERT EHRLICH Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va. RICHARD FENICHEL Pharmacologist (retired), Wyeth-Ayrest, Princeton, N.J. ANNA FORTIER Microbiologist, Entremed, Rockville, Md. SUSAN GDOVIN Microbiologist, University of Maryland, College Park, Md. MARIA GIOVANNI Molecular Biologist, National Eye Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. BROOK GREEN Teacher, Frederick County Public Schools, Thurmont Middle School, Thurmont, Md. TERESA HEIN Instructor, Department of Physics, American University, Washington, D.C. RACHELLE S. HELLER Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. TERRY HUFFORD Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. MARILYN IRVING Professor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Howard University, Washington, D.C. PATRICIA JACOBBERGER-JELLISON Geologist, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. PHILIP B. JOHNSON Physicist, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Manassas, Va. THERESE JOHNSTON Teacher, Alexandria City Schools, George Washington Middle School, Alexandria, Va. ELLA JORDAN Teacher, Howard County Public Schools, Ellicott Mills Middle School, Ellicott City, Md. HOWARD KAPLAN Retired. Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. DONALD KELSO Associate Professor, Department of Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va. ROBERT KNOWLTON Associate Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. DONALD W. KUPKE Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. JACQUELINE LEE Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Rocky Run Middle School, Chantilly, Va. PETER LEVIN Assistant to Counselor to the President, The White House, Washington, D.C.; and Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Supervisor of Computation, Fields Laboratory, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass. RAMON LOPEZ Associate Research Scientist, Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Md.; Director of Education and Outreach, American Physical Society, College Park, Md.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science PETER LYTTLE Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va. LEONARD C. MAXIMON Professor, Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. TED A. MAXWELL Associate Director, Collections and Research, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. NATALIE MEYERS Teacher, Howard County Public Schools, Clarksville Middle School, Clarksville, Md. CYNTHIA B. MILLER Teacher, Frederick County Public Schools, Governor Thomas Johnson Middle School, Frederick, Md. HENRY MILNE Teacher, Montgomery County Public Schools, Cabin John Middle School, Rockville, Md. GWENDOLYN MINOR Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Kilmer Middle School, Vienna, Va. VERNON MORRIS Assistant Professor, Chemistry and Atmospheric Sciences, Howard University and Center for Atmospheres, Washington, D.C. LINDA NEWSOME Teacher, Prince George's County Public Schools, Benjamin Tasker Middle School, Bowie, Md. MARY ANN PETERSON Teacher, Arlington Public Schools, Williamsburg Middle School, Arlington, Va. MARY QUEEN Teacher-Facilitator of Middle School Science, Frederick County Public Schools, Ballenger Creek Middle School, Frederick, Md. NINA ROSCHER Professor and Chair, Department of Chemistry, American University, Washington, D.C. JAN RUEHLE Teacher, Loudoun County Public Schools, Farmwell Station Middle School, Ashburn, Va. CHRISTINA M. SAX Molecular Biologist, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. CONSTANCE SKELTON Teacher, Arlington Public Schools, Williamsburg Middle School, Arlington, Va. MAENETTE B. (DONNA) SMITH Teacher, Prince George's County Public Schools, Walker Mill Middle School, Capital Heights, Md. DOUGLAS R. SPICHER Teacher, Prince George's County Public Schools, Hyattsville Middle School, Hyattsville, Md. GEORGE C. STEPHENS Professor and Chair, Department of Geology, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. SUSAN STEWARD Teacher, Arlington Public Schools, Gunston Middle School, Arlington, Va. JOSEPHINE R. STONE Teacher, Prince George's County Public Schools, Martin Luther King, Jr., Academic Center, Beltsville, Md. MILLICENT T. TATE Teacher, Prince William County Public Schools, Fred Lynn Middle School, Woodbridge, Va. JOSEPH TEACH Teacher, District of Columbia Public Schools, Jefferson Junior High School, Washington, D.C. BERNHARD TRAMS Teacher, Montgomery County Public Schools, Eastern Middle School, Silver Spring, Md. CLARENCE WADE Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. MARTHA WEISS Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. DAVID WILLIAMS Adjunct Faculty Member, Department of Chemistry, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va. RENEKKI WILSON Teacher, District of Columbia Public Schools, Roper Middle School, Washington, D.C. NATHANIEL W. WOODRICK Director, Institute for Science, Space and Technology, Howard University, Washington, D.C. NANCY ZELLER Adjunct Professor, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, D.C.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Building a Compass