Click for next page ( 70


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 69
Project Chairman Walter G. Reuter, Idaho National Engineenng Laboratory, Idaho Fads Technical Adviser John Landes, University of Tennessee, Knoxville SR-1350 Examination of Design CAter~a for Stiffened Plate Panels Investigator Natale S. Nappi, Sr. Contractor Designers and Planners, Inc., Arlington, Virginia Objective Evaluate the effects of loadings such as vertical shear, membrane stress, and torsion in the mathematic mode] for stress analysis of stiffened plate panels, and propose revised design cistern as warranted. Project Chairman Gary North, U.S. Mantime Administration, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser Hsien Yun Jan, Martech Inc., Neshanic Station, New Jersey SR-1351 Hull Structure Concepts for Improved Producibility Investigator John C. Daidola Contractor M. Rosenblatt and Son, Inc., New York, New York Objective Develop alternative structural system concepts for selected ship types that decrease labor requirements in design' fabrication, and outfitting phases. The structural systems should also be capable of low-cost maintenance dunng the life of a vessel. Project Chairman Norman Hammer, U.S. Mantime Administration, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser James R. Wilkins, Jr., Wilkins Enterprise, Inc., Riva, Maryland SR-1353 The Role of Human Error in the Design, Construction, and Reliability of Manne Structures Investigator Robert G. Bea Contractor Ocean Eng~neenng Services, Moraga, California Objective Perform a state-of-the-art assessment of the impact of human error (nonphysical factors) on the safety of marine structures. It would be a first step toward 69

OCR for page 69
reducing the risk of failures due to human error and establishing procedures and guidelines to consider the effects of human error in design and the formulation of structural design criteria. Project Chairman John S. Spencer, American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, Texas Technical Adviser Paul Fischbeck, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Marc Wilson, MiTech, Rockville, Maryland SR-1354 Grounding Protection for Tankers Investigator Tomas Wierzbicki Contractor Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Objective Evaluate analytical methods to calculate the grounding energy-absorption capability of double-hull tanker structures. Project Chairman H. Paul Cojeen, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser none assigned SR-1355 Inspection of Manne Structures Investigator Robert Bea Contractor University of California, Berkeley Objective Survey current practices for inspection of marine structures to estimate costs associated with venous inspection methods and to quantify, for various methods and types of structures, the sensitivity of inspection methods and accuracy of measured levels of corrosion and fatigue damage. Project Chairman Lenny Pendexter, American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, Texas Technical Adviser Rong T. Huang, Chevron Shipping Company, San Francisco, California SR-1356 Strength Assessment of Pitted Plate Panels Investigator not yet determined , ~ 70

OCR for page 69
Contractor not yet determined Objective Develop a simple procedure to assess the strength and integrity of pitted and grooved shell plate and other structural components of vessels in service. The procedure will evaluate corrosion damage by determining an effective thickness of pitted plate. Project Chairman not yet determined Technical Adwser Maria Celia C. Ximenes, Chevron Shipping Company, San Francisco, California SR-1357 Retention of Weld Metal Properties and Hydrogen Cracking Investigator not yet determined Contractor not yet determined Objective Develop a method for ensuring that required weld metal properties are produced over the complete range of welding conditions, processes, and consumables used dunng new construction and repair. Also, develop a reliable test for predictions of weld-meta] cracking to allow establishment of safe conditions to facilitate introduction of higher-strength and more-productive steels. Project Chairman J. Allen Manuel. Naval Sea Systems Command, Arlington, Virginia Technical Adviser Santiago Ibarra, Amoco Corp., Naperville, Illinois SR-1358 Optunized Design Parameters for Welded TMCP Steels Investigator not yet determined Contractor not yet determined Objective Develop static, fatigue, and fracture strength requirements for high-strength thermo-mechaTucal controlled-process (TMCP) steels and weldments. Project Chairman William Hanzalek, American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, Texas Technical Adwser Harold S Reemsnyder, Bethlehem Steel Corporation 71

OCR for page 69
SR-1359 U.S.-Russian Cooperative Research Effort Investigator Vladimir Ankudinov Contractor Designers and Planners, Inc., Arlington, Virginia Objective Contract to assess the depth of Russian technology in the area of ship structures by conducting a shadow research effort parallel to selected existing or recent SSC projects. Project Chainnan Alexander Malakhoff, Naval Sea Systems Command, Arlington, Virginia Technical Adviser none assigned SR-1360 Structural Maintenance Project Investigator Robert Bea Contractor University of California, Berkeley Objective Continue research on structural maintenance programs, specifically: "A Repair Management System," "Fatigue Classification of Critical Structural Details," and "A Fatigue Study of Proposed Cntical Structural Details in Double-Hull Tankers." Project Chairman H. Paul Cojeen, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser none assigned SR-1362 Probability Based Design (Phase 4), Synthesis of the Reliability Thrust Area Investigator not yet dete~ined Contractor not yet determined Objective Provide a coherent synthesis of the projects in the reliability thrust area and related SSC projects, as weld as the most recent developments that are likely to impact manna-structural-reliability analysis and design. Provide a document that summarizes the state of the art in marine structural reliability. This document would be the fundamental reference for (~) development of a probability-based ship-structure design code, (2) definition of procedures for performing failure analysis, and (3) reliability analysis for existing ships. 72

OCR for page 69
Project Chairman H. Paul Cojeen, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser not yet determined SR-1363 Symposium and Workshop on the Prevention of Fracture in Ship Structures Investigator John Landes, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Contractor Committee on Manne Structures Objective Provide the means for bnug~ng together experts in the fields of fatigue, fracture, and reliability of marine structures and the researchers, designers, fabncators, and operators of these marine structures, in order to rationally address causes and remedies for the rash of structural failures occurring in ships. Project Chairman Steve Alien, U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center, Groton, Connecticut Technical Adviser none assigned SR-1364 Guidelines for Evaluation of Finite Element Models and Results Investigator not yet determined Contractor not yet determined Objective Develop a methodology for efficiently qualifying finite-element-method codes and models for engineering analysis of ship structures. Provide guidelines for modeling in typical marine applications and for rapid assessment of validity of results. Increase the usefulness and confidence level of f~nite-element analyses in the design and evaluation of ship structures. Establish the feasibility of developing specific guidelines for the development and validity assessment of finite-element-method models and results. Project Chairman Stephen Gibson, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, Ontario Technical Adviser none assigned SR-1365 Optimal Strategies for Inspection of Ships for Fatigue and/or Corrosion Damage Investigator not yet determined 73

OCR for page 69
Contractor not yet determined Objective Develop an optimal strategy for inspection of ships in service. The focus will be on tankers. Reduce maintenance costs for ships, while maintaining or improving safety and reliability. Project Chairman Philip G. Rynn, American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, Texas Technical Adviser not yet determined SR-1366 Corrosion Control of Inner-Bull Spaces Investigator not yet determined Contractor not yet determined Objective Investigate methods for controlling corrosion in the region between the inner and outer hulls in new double-hulled designs that wall ensure safety and integrity of the vessels. Feasible methods wall be ranked according to potential cost-effectiveness. Mitigate corrosion in the interhull area of double-hulled vessels. Project Chairman Gary Farmer, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser not yet determined SR-1367 Design Guide for Manne Applications of Composites Investigator not yet determined Contractor not yet determined Objective Develop a guide for the safe and cost-effective design of composite components for ships and offshore structures. A design guide for the application of composites to marine structures would provide a valuable resource to ship and offshore platform designers and fabncators. --of rid Project Chairman William M. Hayden, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser not yet determined 74

OCR for page 69
SR-1368 Compensation for Openings in Structural Members Investigator not yet determined Contractor not yet determined Objective Establish rational methodologies and guidelines for the determination of appropriate compensation for small and large openings in primary structural members of ships. Two sets of guidelines are required, one suitable for preliminary and contract design and another for detailed design. The efficiency and reliability of structural reinforcements around openings In Unman structure should be improved and their design and construction be made less costly. Project Chairman Stephen G. AIntson, American Bureau of Shipping, Arlington, Virginia Technical Adviser not yet determined 7s

OCR for page 69
76 RESEARCHRECOMMENDATIONS FOR FYs 1998-1999 Summary Action is required by regulators, designers, fabricators, maintainers, owners, and operators of ships to reduce the fracture-related failures in ships. The CMS recommends that specific action be taken in the areas of design, loads, inspection and repair, and communications. For design, develop a ship-detail guidebook/standard; expand simplified fatigue analysis methods; gather additional data on the fatigue strength of various large-scale ship details; and design ship structure to include access for service inspections. For loads, develop a rigorous approach for combining high- and low-frequency response; compute loads using mechanics- and geometry-based simulations; develop a relatively inexpensive, easily operated hull-stress monitoring system that provides reai-time feedback to the operators; and quantify the degree of uncertainty in load predictions. For inspection, develop guidelines for f~tness-for-purpose assessments; develop new inspection tools and improve existing tools; and quantify the fatigue life of temporary repairs. For communications, develop a cradle-to-grave ship structural integrity database system that includes hull-stress monitoring, inspection, and repair data; develop and promulgate a manual or library, sorted by levels of fatigue strength of predictable standard details for fatigue resistance; educate and train future structural designers at the undergraduate level in fatigue and fracture design methods; and use concurrent engineering in ship design to include designers, owners, operators, fabricators, and surveyors/inspectors in the process. Project Chair Steve Allen, U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center, Groton, Connecticut Technical Adviser Committee on Marine Structures SR-1364 Guideline for Evaluation of Finite Elements and Results (SSC-387) (NTIS PB96-153077) Investigator Roger Basu Contractor Mi! Systems Engineering, Ottawa7 Ontario, Canada Objective Develop a methodology for efficiently qualifying finite element method codes and models for engineering analysis of ship structures. Provide guidelines for modeling in typical marine applications and for rapid assessment of validity of results. Increase the usefulness and confidence level of finite element analyses in the design and evaluation of ship structures. Establish the feasibility of developing specific guidelines for the development and validity assessment of finite element method models and results.

OCR for page 69
REVIEW OF COMPLETED PROJECTS Projects completed since the 1992 annual report was published are listed In Table 5. Project descriptions follow, with the addition of a brief summary of the final report, which represents the CMS's understanding of the results as reported by the author. Project reports have been published, are in publication, or wall be available Tom the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Spnngfield, VA 22161. The N TIS numbers are given with each project description, along with the SSC report number. NTIS numbers also appear in Table 6. Many recent reports may be available from the Executive Director of the SSC. Requests may be mailed to Commander Stephen E. Sharpe, Commandant (G-MI/SSC), 2100 Second Street, SW, Washington, DC 20593-0001. TABLE 5 Completed Projects Number Project Title Page SR-1330 Probability-based Ship Design Procedures: A Demonstration SR-1333 Underwater Repair Procedures for Ship Hulls (Fatigue and Ductility of Underwater Wet Welds) .......................... SR-1334 Establishment of a Uniform Format for Data Reporting of Structural Material Properties for Reliability Analysis Probability-based Ship Design (Phase 2~: Loads and Load Combinations Maintenance of Manne Structures A State-of-the-Art Summary Measurement of Ice Loads on Ship Structures SR-1337 SR-1347 SR-1348 78 78 79 79 80 81 77

OCR for page 69
SR-1330 Probability-based Ship Design Procedures: A Demonstration (SSC-368) (NTIS PB94-109675) Investigator Alaa Mansour Contractor Mansour Engineering, Inc., Berkeley, California Objective Demonstrate the use of probabiliW-based ship design techniques, comparing the process with the traditional method and using the example to identity additional information that wall be required and obtained. In addition to demonstrating probability-based design, the project will identify gaps in present knowledge and thereby help define goals for follow-on projects in this thrust area. Sununary The report gives two basic demonstrations that illustrate the development and calibration of design criteria for uniform safely over a wide range of basic parameters involved in design. It also applies the state-of-the-art reliability techniques to hull-g~rder safety analysis of existing vessels. In doing both, a standardized structural reliability terminology, limit states, and load extrapolation techniques are defined for future projects. The report concludes with an evaluation of benefits and drawbacks of using the method and gives recommendations for future research. Project Chairman Norman O. Hammer, Mantime Administration, Washington, D.C. Technical Advisers Paul A. Wirsching, University of Arizona, Tucson; James T. P. Yao, Texas A&M University, College Station SR-1333 Underwater Repair Procedures for Ship Bulls (Fatigue and Ductility of Underwater Wet Welds) (SSC-370) (NTIS PB94-121936) Investigator Kim Grubbs Contractor CASDE Corporation, Torrance, California Objective Expand the limited body of knowledge in the field of underwater welding for ship repair by addressing and quantizing the characteristics of underwater wet welding techniques and placing particular emphasis on fatigue characteristics on underwater wet welds and the effect of low ductility of welds on structural performance. Sunnnary Testing was performed on butt welds in 0.375 inch ASTM A36 steed wet welded in 30 feet of fresh water with E7014 type electrodes. Fatigue strength for specimens welded without backing bars was comparable with dry surface welds. The fatigue life of wet-weld specimens with backing bars was 50 percent lower than that of specimens without backing bars. Underwater welded butts in shell plating have adequate 78

OCR for page 69
toughness if they are no closer than 6 inches to transverse frames, bulkheads, or other stiff supporting structures. Detailed structural analysis should be made of other areas in which underwater wet welds are to be performed. Project Chairman Eugene Mitchell, Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser Santiago Ibarra, Jr., Amoco Corporation, Naperv~le, Illinois SR-1334 Establishment of a Uniform Format for Data Reporting of Structural Material Properties for Reliability Analysis (SR-371) (NTIS PB94-121944) Investigator L. Malik Contractor Fleet Technology Limited, Kanata, Ontano, Canada Objective Establish a uniform format for data reporting of matena] properties for reliability analysis, and identifier testing conditions and procedures. Summary The format developed in report SSC-352, "Marine Structural Steel Toughness Data Bank," was modified to incorporate the requirements of reliability-based structural design. A data hierarchy was developed to help users identify the relative importance of the pieces of information in the data format. Recommendations concerning the Implementation of the information in this study and additional work that would complement the study are given. Project Chairman J. Allen Manuel, Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C. Technical Advisers Keith Ortiz, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico; John R. Rumble, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland SR-1337 Probability-based Ship Design (Phase 2~: Loads and Load Combinations (SSC-373) Investigator Alaa Mansour Contractor Mansour Engineering, Inc., Berkeley, California Objective Recommend load models, loads, data, and load-combination procedures for use with the design-guide development, Phase 3 of the SSC probability-based ship design thrust area, Implementation of Probability-based Design Guidelines." 79

OCR for page 69
Summary Standard loads necessary for a probability-based design are identified, including hull-g~rder loads and external and internal local loads. Combinations of extreme loads are investigated at the forward and midship portions of a ship. Fatigue loads are given a different treatment to determine their load ranges over the life of the ship. Modeling errors are analyzed in terms of bias and coefficient of vanation. A synthesis of load models and load combination procedures is recommended for ship structural design. Analysis oriented procedures, which are more accurate, are also given. Recommendations are made for future research in nonlinear response and in slamming and their effect on load combinations. ~ , Project Chainnan Robert A. Sielski, Marine Board, Washington, D.C. Technical Adwser Yi Kwei Wen, University of Illinois, Urbana SR-1347 Maintenance of Marine Structures: A State-of-the-Art Summary (SSC-372) (NTIS PB94-121952) Investigator Robert Bea Contractor Universitr of California, Berkeley Objective Review and summarize past SSC and other work related to maintenance of marine structures, and identify research needs. Summary The topics discussed in the report include: reliability-based design; welding; mechanical fastening techniques; fatigue; nondestn~ctive testing; and instrumentation. In addition to the research report, a data base was developed to aid researchers in finding SSC reports of interest to their specific topics. Project Chairman Fred Seibold, Maritime Administration, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser none assigned 80

OCR for page 69
SR-1348 Measurement of Ice Loads on Ship Structures Investigator J. W. St. John Contractor Science Technology Corporation, Columbia, Maryland Objective Develop a data base on ice loads that could be used for probability-based design approaches. Assess the effects of ship displacement, impact location, and hull shape on the ice impact loads on icebreakers and other marine structures. Summary Beginning in August 1992, the Nathaniel B. Palmer, a research vessel, operated for three weeks in midwinter ice conditions, including first-year and second- year ice. In addition to an instrumented bow panel, there were instrumented panels on the starboard side, the transom, and on the bottom so that the relative magnitudes of the impact loads could be compared for similar ice conditions but different hull locations. Data from a total of 800 ice impact events were obtained using the four instrumented hull panels. This report covers phase I, that of instrumentation and data collection. Phase 2, analysis of the data gathered and a comparison study between different ice-load measurement programs on different tvDes of icebreakers. wall be resorted later. J 1. Project Chairman Rubin Sheinberg, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser none assigned 81

OCR for page 69
TABLE 6 Cross-Reference of Ship Structure Comminee Project Numbers and Report Numbers SSC Report SR Project NT-IS Number Number Number 330 1293 PB91-105965 331 1292 PB91-104935 332 1289 PB91-104943 333 1277 PB91-104950 334 1305 PB91-105957 335 1283 PB91-129254 336 1284 PB91-129262 337 1290 Part 1 PB91-133405 337 1290 Part 2 PB91-133413 338 1297 PB91-152330 339 1308 PB91-152759 340 1308 PB91-146191 341 1313 PB91-153635 342 1313 PB91-146209 343 1320 PB91-152124 344 1303 PB91-153262 345 1321 Part 1 PB91-149476 345 1321 Part 2 PB91-146043 346 1298 PB91-146043 347 1304 PB91-173070 348 1306 PB91-169748 349 1300 PB91-160325 350 1312 ADA-232630 351 1310 PB91-153304 352 1311 Abndged PB92-163294 version 352 1311 4-volume PB92-176296 set 353 1309 PB91-173328 354 1316 ADA-247671 355 1317 PB91-153270 356 1323 PB91-153288 357 1315 PB91-169730 358 1301 PB91-146035 359 1307 PB91-193458 360 1328 PB91-129270 361 1327 PB91-133421 362 1314 PB91-170241 363 1326 PB91-193441 364 1322 PB91-201343 365 1332 PB92-163286 366 1319 ADA-258160 367 1324 ADA-268409 367 1324 Appendu: PB94-102225 368 1330 PB94-109675 369 1336 PB94-121928 370 1333 PB94-121936 371 1334 PB94-121944 372 1347 PB94-121952 373 1337 - SR Project Number SSC Report Number 1277 1283 1284 1289 1290 1292 1293 1297 1298 1300 1301 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1313 1314 1315 133 13~, 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1326 1327 1328 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1336 1337 1347 1348 333 335 336 332 337 331 330 338 346 349 358 344 347 334 348 359 339 340 353 351 352 350 341 342 362 357 354 355 366 343 345 364 356 367 363 361 360 368 ** 365 370 371 369 373 372 * * To be assigned. Report numbers for all projects have not been assigned. ** Proceedings and Summa~y of National Conference on Use of Composite Materials in Load-beanog Marine Structures. 1990. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 82

OCR for page 69
APPENDIX A: LATER-YEAR POTENTIAL PROJECTS IN SUPPORT OF THRUST AREAS TABLE 7 Later-Years Potential Projects in Support of Thrust Areas. Sheet Number Project Title - RELL`BILITY PROJECI S 95D-Q 95D-S 95D-T 95D-V 95M-D 95M-M 95M-R 95TC-A 95TC-C 95M-C 95M-S 95M-T A Study of the Effects of Transport Route Profiles Upon the Fatigue Failures of Shins Consistent Stochastic Analysis Procedure for Design of Floating Manne Structures e ~ Nonlinear Rolling of a Lightship Tanker and Other Shallow Draft Structures . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Probabili~-Based Design (Phase 5~: Novel Hull Forms and Environments (93-1) e ~ e ~ - Development of a Sensor for Evaluating Corrosion In Areas Not Easily Accessed for Inspection ........ Development of Ductile Fracture Assessment Techniques for Small Defects in Ship Structure Components (94-9) ............. Fracture Methodology for Strength Mismatched Weldments (94M-D Post Yield Strength of Ship Structural Members . . . . . . . . . . . Fiber Optic Strain Gauge ................................ COMPOSITES PROJECTS Intelligent Composite Structure Development for Marine Applications Long-Term Durability of Polymer-Based Composites and Corrosion at Metal-Composite Interfaces (94M-K) ........................ Analysis and Design Technology Development for Manne Composite Structures (94M-N) 85 86 88 89 91 92 93 94 95 95 97 98 83

OCR for page 69
TABLE 7 Later-Years Potential Projects in Support of Thrust Areas. Sheet 2 . Number Project Title PRODUCIBILITY/COMPFIITIVENESS PROJECTS 95D-A 95D-B 95D-F 95D-K 95D-L 95M-E 95M-O 95M-V 95M-A 95M-B 95M-H 95M-N 95M-Q 95TC-B Comparative Design of Orthogonally Stiffened Plates for Production and St~ctura]]ntegn~ ................................. Use of Adhesives for Structural Bonding of Manne Structures (94D-S) Design of Innovative Producible Manne Structures (94-~S revisers Metncation Impact Assessment and Implementation Guide Analysis/Companson of International versus U.S. Structural Standards Perfonnance and Optimized Weld Metal Properties for 65,00~psi Yield . Strength Steel Plate Heat Affected Zone Toughness of High-Heat-Input Welds (9~12) Weldable Coatings for Ship Construction (94-~) INSPECTION/MAINTENANCE PROJECTS Retrofit of Manne Cathodic Protection Systems High Cycle Fatigue of Welded, Cathodically Protected Structural Steel in Sea Water . ................... In Situ Nondestn~ctive Evaluation of Fatigue and Fracture Properties for Aging Ship Structures . . .... . . . . . . .. . . Threshold and Near-Threshold Corrosion Fatigue Testing of Manne Steels (94-10) ~ ~ ~ Evaluation of Residual Stress Effects on Weldments Fracture Behavior (94-19) Standardized Approach to Methodology and Analysis of Ultrasonic Inspections of Ship Structures . . . . . . . . . . . 100 102 103 105 106 107 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 84