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Marine Structures Research Recommendations Recommendations for the Interagency Ship Structure Committee's FY 1995 and Later-Years Research Program Committee on Marine Structures Manne Board National Research Council NATIONAL, ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineenng, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a pnvate, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identity issues of medical care, research, and education. Dre Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report represents work supported under provisions of Contract DTCG23-93-C-EO1037 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Coast Guard, acting for the Ship Structure Committee. This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States government and the Ship Structure Committee assume no liability for the contents or use thereof. Limited copies are available from Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Additional copies are for sale from National Technical Information Senice 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161

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COMMITTEE ON MARINE STRUClURES The Committee on Dianne Structures (CMS) provides technical projections, reviews, and advice to the interagency Ship Structure Committee (SSC) on a research program that addresses materials, design, fabrication, and inspection related to marine structures. The appendices address the relationship of the CMS, the SSC, the Ship Structure Subcommittee (SSSC), and liaison members. PETER M. PALERMO, Chairman, Consultant Naval Engineering, Alexandria, Virginia SUBRATA K CHAKRABARTI, Chicago Bridge ~ Iron Company, Plainfield, Illinois BRUCE. G. COLLIPP, NAE, Consultant Marine Engineering, Houston, Texas ROGER G. KLINE, Consultant- Naval Architect, Winona, Minnesota JOHN LANDES, University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROBERT G. LOEWY, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta DESIGN WORK GROUP SUBRATA K CHAKRABARTI, Chairman, Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, Plainfield, Illinois HOWARD M. BUNCH, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor PETER A GALE, John J. McMullen Associates, Arlington, Virginia HSIEN YUN JAN, Martech Inc., Neshanic Station, New Jersey JOHN NIEDZWECKI, Texas A&M University, College Station SOLOMON C.S. YIM, Oregon State Universit,, Corvallis MARIA CELIA C. XIMENES, Chevron Shipping Company, San Francisco, California MATERIAIJi WORK GROUP JOHN LANDES, Chairman, University of Tennessee, Knoxville WILLIAM H. HARTZ, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton HAROLD S. REEMSNYDER, Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania BARBARA ~ SHAW, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JAMES M. SAWMILL, Jr., Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia BRUCE R. SOMERS, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania JERRY G. WILLIAMS, Conoco, Inc., Ponca City, Oklahoma STAFF ROBERT ~ SIELSKI, Senior Staff Officer CARLA D. MOORE, Administrative Assistant . . .

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MARINE BOARD JERRY R. SCHUBEL, Chairman, State University of New York, Stony Brook JERRY A. ASPLAND, Arco Manne, Inc. ANNE AYLWARD ROBERT G. BEA, NAE, University of California, Berkeley MARK Y. BERMAN, Amoco Production Co. JOHN W. BOYLSTON, Argent Marine Operations, Inc. JAMES M. COLEMAN, NAE, Louisiana State University WIGWAM M. ETCHBAUM, World Wildlife Fund EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, NAS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography MARTHA GRABOWSKI, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ROBERT W. KNECHT, University of Delaware HENRY S. MARCUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ASHISH J. MEHTA, University of Florida J. BRADFORD MOONEY, NAE, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution STEPHEN F. SCHMIDT, American President Lines, Ltd. STEPHANIE R. THORNTON, Coastal Resources Center JUDITH S. WElS, Rutgers University ALAN G. YOUNG, Fugro-McCIelIand BV STAFF CHARLES A. BOOKMAN, Director DONALD W. PERKINS, Associate Director DORIS C. HOLMES, Staff Associate IV

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ABSTRACT This annual report of the Manne Board's Committee on Marine Structures proposes updates to the 5-year research program of the Ship Structure Committee (SSC). The SSC is an interagency body through which the U.S. Coast Guard, Naval Sea Systems Command, Mantime Administration, Military Sealift Command, American Bureau of Shipping, Transport Canada, and the Canadian Department of Defence coordinate their research on structural integrity of marine structures. The SSC's research program is intended to accommodate advanced concepts and long-range planrung, as weld as research in technology areas of matenals cntena, loads and response, design methods, fabrication and maintenance, and reliability. The updated research program covers the fiscal years (FY) 1994-1998. The report includes: (~) a comprehensive review of the entire research program, including work performed in FY 1993 and the rationale for new projects proposed for FY 1995 and outlying years, (2) detailed project descriptions for the 16 new projects proposed for FY 1995, and (3) brief summaries of recently completed projects and all active or pending projects in the program. Three appendices provide detailed descnptions for projects proposed for outlying years, background on the SSC and the Committee on Manne Structures, and the approved Ship Structure Committee Strategic Plan. The committee's report uses four thrust areas to relate its proposed new projects to the Strategic Plan's goals and implementation strategies. The thrust areas are reliability, composites, producibility/competitiveness, and inspection/maintenance. v

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FOREWORD The purpose of the Ship Structure Committee (SSC) is to promote safety, economy, education, and marine environmental protection in the U.S. maritime industry through the advancement of marine structures technology. The role of the Committee on Manne Structures (CMS) is to advise the SSC on its program of research in matenals, loading, response, design, fabncation, maintenance, inspection, and repair of marine structures. On June 8, 1992 the SSC promulgated the Ship Structure Committee Strategic Plan, addressing national goals and SSC strategies in support of those goals. It provided the focus for the research projects and programs addressed herein. Each of the projects supports at least one of the national goals as well as at least one of the strategies of that plan. To support these goals and associated strategies, the CMS proposes a program consisting of four specific thrust areas that wall help the SSC contribute to providing a means to greatly enhance the design of ships and shipbuilding capability in the United States, the inspectability and maintenance of aging ships, and safety of ships at sea. The failures of bulk camers and weld cracking of structural members of Trans-Alaska Pipeline Seance trade tankers are cause for concern. A large number of SSC projects are related to reliability of marine structures. The CMS wild hold a short, hands-on workshop addressing fracture assessments and the application of reliability methods to read design problems. Challenges abound in this area, and the CMS plans to address them. The results of the workshop wall be incorporated in future editions of Manne Structures Research Recommendations, and may Icad to a new CMS thrust area. Recognizing the strong interrelationship between materials and design, the two working groups of the CMS, the Design Working Group and the Matenals Working Group, met concurrently in June 1993. This fostered enhanced communications between the two groups, which is reflected in the proposed projects for FY 1995 and later years. In addition, the committee is implementing a more systematic and documented review of finished projects. This watt ensure that any necessary technology extensions are adequately identified and fully considered when future fiscal year recommendations are submitted. In November 1993, the SSC approved publishing the Manne StrucPures Research Recommendations on a biennial basis as a means for providing more cost-e~ective advice. Efforts are underway to define CMS operating procedures necessary to support biennial recommendations, while retaining the same quality of product and timeliness of research that had been achieved with annual reports. Discussions of research projects for later years that are contained in this report provide a bridge for the preparation of future biennial reports. Three valued members have left the CMS. Bill Hartt, Mark Berman, and Rolf Glassfeld completed their terms of appointment in June 1993. They wait be sorely missed. They have been replaced by three highly qualified individuals, John Landes of the University of Tennessee; Bruce Collipp, NAE, a marine engineering consultant from Houston, Texas; and Roger Kline, a nave] architect consultant from Winona, Minnesota. John Landes is the new chairman of the CMS Materials Work Group. Peter M. Palermo Chairman, Committee on Marine Structures . . V11

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will ensure that any necessary technology extensions are adequately identified and fully considered when future fiscal year recommendations are submitted. Four members of the CMS completed their terms of service since the last biennial report: Subrata K. Chakrabarti, Bruce G. Collipp, Roger G. Kline, and Robert G. Loewy. Five new members have been appointed to the CMS: Howard M. Bunch from the Office of Naval Research-Europe, Andrew Kendrick from Fleet Technology; John M. Niedzwecki from Texas A&M University; Alan W. Pense from Lehigh University; and Barbara A. Shaw from Pennsylvania State University. John D. Landes, Chair Committee on Marine Structures , . . vat ~ ~

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . e ~ e ~ ~ ~ e e e e e ~ ~ e ~ e e e e e e e e ~ e ~ ~ ~ e CMS Recommendations for Implementing the SSC Strategic Plan Thrust Areas . e Reliability e e e e Composites . e e ~ e e ~ Producibility/Competitiveness Inspection/Maintenance RESEARCH PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT . e e e Technology Areas e e e e e e e ~ e e e e e e e e ~ e e e Relationship Among Strategic Plan, Technology Areas and Thrust Areas e e Matenals Critena ............... Novel Marine Materials . . Fracture e e ~ ~ e ~ e e Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Loads and Response e e e e e e Design Methods .. Adequate Strength in Service . . . Ship Hull Structural Design . . . e e e Use of Newer High Performance Steels e e Finite Element Modeling of Ship Structures Fabncation and Maintenance Techniques Inspection and Integrity e e e e e e Repair of Mann e Structures e e e Reliability 6 7 10 10 11 21 21 21 23 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 31 32 33 e ~ 34 35 36 36 e 39 e ~ e Probabilibr-based Design Approach for Ship Structures Reliability of Existing Ship Structures Human Error and its Impact on Design Development of International Standards FISCAL YEAR 1995 PROJECT RECOMMENDATIONS ACTIVE AND PENDrNG PROJECTS REVIEW OF COMPLETED PROJECTS APPENDIX A: LATER-YEAR POTENTIAL PROJECTS IN SUPPORT OF THRUST AREAS APPENDIX B: COMMl~l'l'L;E ON MARINE STRUCTURES AND SHIP STRUCTURE COMMl'l'l'L;E ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX C: SHIP STRUCTURE COMMlrl'l't;E STRATEGIC PLAN . . . IX 63 77 83 ,... 119 124

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3- 4. 5. 6. 8. LIST OF TABLES Recommended Projects in Support of Thrust Areas Relationship Between the Strategic Plan, Thrust Areas' and Technology Areas in the Research Plan Proposed FY 1995 Projects Active and Pending Proiects Completed Projects Cross-Reference of Ship Structure Committee Project Numbers and Report Numbers .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Later-Year Potential Projects in Support of Thrust Areas x 9 12 39 64 77 82 83