Derivation of the UL. A UL of 2.5 g (62.5 mmol)/day is calculated by dividing a LOAEL of 5 g (125 mmol)/day by the UF of 2. The data summarized in Table 4-11 show that calcium intakes of 0.3 to 2.5 g (7.5 to 62.5 mmol)/day have not been shown to cause MAS and provide supportive evidence for a UL of 2,500 mg (62.5 mmol)/day for adults. The estimated UL for calcium in adults is judged to be conservative. For individuals who are particularly susceptible to high calcium intakes, such as those with hypercalcemia and hyper-absorptive hypercalciuria, this level or below should be protective.

UL for Adults

19 through 70 years

2,500 mg (62.5 mmol)/day

Infants: Ages 0 through 12 Months

The safety of calcium intakes above the levels provided by infant formulas and weaning foods has recently been studied by Dalton et al. (1997). They did not find any effect on iron status from calcium intakes of approximately 1,700 mg (42.5 mmol)/day in infants, which was attained using calcium-fortified infant formula. However, further studies are needed before a UL specific to infants can be established.

UL for Infants

0 through 12 months

Not possible to establish for supplementary calcium

Toddlers, Children, and Adolescents: Ages 1 through 18 years

Although the safety of excess calcium intake in children ages 1 through 18 years has not been studied, a UL of 2,500 mg (62.5 mmol)/day is recommended for these life stage groups. Although calcium supplementation in children may appear to pose minimal risk of MAS or hyperabsorptive hypercalciuria, risk of depletion of other minerals associated with high calcium intakes may be greater. With high calcium intake, small children may be especially susceptible to deficiency of iron and zinc (Golden and Golden, 1981; Schlesinger et al., 1992; Simmer et al., 1988). However, no dose-response data exist regarding these interactions in children or the development of adaptation to chronic high calcium intakes. After age 9, rates of calcium absorption and bone formation begin to increase in preparation for pubertal development, but a conservative UL of 2,500 mg (62.5 mmol)/day (from diet and supplements) is recommended for children due to the lack of data.

UL for Children

1 through 18 years

2,500 mg (62.5 mmol)/day



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