Utilizing the 1994 CSFII intake data, adjusted for day-to-day variations (Nusser et al., 1996), the median intake of phosphorus for the 16 lactating women in the survey is 1,483 mg (47.8 mmol)/day and the lowest intake reported was at the first percentile of 1,113 mg (35.9 mmol)/day (see Appendix D). All women consumed above the phosphorus EAR of 580 to 1,055 mg (18.7 to 34 mmol)/day during lactation.

Special Considerations

Adolescent Mothers and Mothers Nursing Multiple Infants. As with calcium, phosphorus requirements may be increased in lactating adolescents and in mothers nursing multiple infants. Requirements during these periods may be higher because of the adolescent mother 's own growth requirements and the requirement for increased milk production while nursing multiple infants. It is not known whether decreased urinary phosphorus and increased maternal bone resorption provides sufficient amounts of phosphorus to meet these increased needs.

TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS

Hazard Identification

As shown in Figure 5-1, serum Pi rises as total phosphorus intake increases. Excess phosphorus intake from any source is expressed as hyperphosphatemia, and essentially all the adverse effects of phosphorus excess are due to the elevated Pi in the ECF. The principal effects that have been attributed to hyperphosphatemia are: (1) adjustments in the hormonal control system regulating the calcium economy, (2) ectopic (metastatic) calcification, particularly of the kidney, (3) in some animal models, increased porosity of the skeleton, and (4) a suggestion that high phosphorus intakes could reduce calcium absorption by complexing calcium in the chyme. Concern about high phosphorus intake has been raised in recent years because of a probable population-level increase in phosphorus intake through such sources as cola beverages and food phosphate additives.

It has been reported that high intakes of polyphosphates, such as are found in food additives, can interfere with absorption of iron, copper, and zinc (Bour et al., 1984); however, described effects are small, and have not been consistent across studies (for example,



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