human value (on the ground that there is no basis for assuming major differences in tissue susceptibility to metastatic mineralization at different ages), the corresponding ingested intake in an adult (assuming the relationship of Figure 5-1) would be over 10.2 g (330 mmol)/day.

Uncertainty Assessment. No benefit is evident from serum Pi values above the usual normal range in adults. Moreover, information is lacking concerning adverse effects in the zone between normal Pi and levels associated with ectopic mineralization. Therefore, in keeping with the pharmacokinetic practice where the relationship between intake and blood level is known (Petley et al., 1995), an uncertainty factor (UF) of 2.5 is chosen.

Derivation of the UL. A UL of ~4.0 g (~130 mmol)/day for adults is calculated by dividing a NOAEL of 10.2 g (330 mmol)/day by a UF of 2.5.

UL for Adults

19 through 70 years

4.0 g (130 mmol)/day

Infants: Ages 0 through 12 Months

As with adults, there are essentially no reports of adverse effects clearly attributable to high phosphorus intake of dietary origin in infants, children, or adolescents. Except for the sensitivity of very young infants noted above, there are no data relating to adverse effects of phosphorus intake for most of the first year of life. For that reason, it was determined that it was impossible to establish a specific UL for infants.

UL for Infants

0 through 12 months

Not possible to establish; source of intake should be from formula and food only

Toddlers and Children: Ages 1 through 8 Years

For toddlers and children, a UL of 3.0 g (96.8 mmol)/day is calculated by dividing the NOAEL for adults (10.2 g [330 mmol]/day by a UF of ~3.3 to account for potentially increased susceptibility due to smaller body size.

UL for Children

1 through 8 years

3.0 g (96.8 mmol)/day



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