energy expenditure, 34-35

fluoride, 289, 303

indicators used to set AIs, 107-108, 269-270

indicators used to set EARs, 173-174, 219-221

lactation, 179, 241

magnesium, 219-223, 239, 241, 244-246

phosphorus, 173-175, 177-179, 186-187, 188-189

RDAs, 173, 175, 179, 223, 239

ULs, 137-141, 186-187, 244-246, 281-283, 310-311

vitamin D, 269-271, 281-283

weights and heights, reference, 36

Adults, 31 through 50 years

calcium, 109-110, 398

derivation of DRIs for, 34-35

energy metabolism, 35

fluoride, 303

indicators used to set AIs, 109-110, 269-270

indicators used to set EARs, 173-174, 223-226

lactation, 179, 241

magnesium, 207, 223-228, 239, 241, 244-246

phosphorus, 173-175, 177-179, 186-187

RDAs, 175, 179, 228, 239

ULs, 137-141, 186-187, 244-246, 281-283, 310-311

vitamin D, 269-271, 281-283

Adults, 51 through 70 years

bone loss, 271-272

bone mineral density, 112, 113-114

calcium, 111-115

derivation of DRIs for, 35

energy expenditures, 35

fluoride, 303

indicators used to set EARs, 228

indicators used to set AIs, 111-114, 271-272

magnesium, 228-231, 244-246

phosphorus, 154, 175-176

RDAs, 176, 231

ULs, 137-141, 186-187, 244-246, 281-283, 310-311

vitamin D, 263, 271-272, 281-283

Adults, +70 years

bone mineral density, 116

calcium, 87-88, 115-117, 142

fluoride, 303

fracture rates, 115-116

indicators used to set AIs, 115-116, 231-232, 273-274

magnesium, 195, 200, 201-202, 203, 204, 207, 231-234, 245

phosphorus, 154, 175-176, 188

RDAs, 176, 233-234

ULs, 142, 188, 244-246, 281-283, 310-311

vitamin D, 255, 273-274, 287

Adverse effect, 52, 63

African Americans

blood pressure, 89

bone mass, 73

bone mineral content, 97

bone fractures, 73, 90

calcium, 73, 80, 89, 100

lactose intolerance, 80

magnesium, 195

phosphorus, 149

puberty, 34

vitamin D, 260, 263, 269, 270

Alcohol consumption and alcoholism, 157, 191, 193, 200, 203, 204, 206, 207

Aluminum, 148, 157, 219, 243, 245

American Academy of Pediatrics, 32, 33, 295, 305

American Dental Association, 295, 304, 305

Anemia, 157

Animal studies

extrapolation of data from, 54, 57, 62-63

relevance of, 63, 65-66

Anorexia, 157, 280

Antacids, 139, 148, 157, 243, 245

Asians

blood pressure, 89

calcium, 89, 98

magnesium, 200

osteoporosis, 83, 200

vitamin D, 264, 266

Atherosclerosis, 198, 249

Athletes, 188, 195, 316

B

Balance studies.

See also Calcium balance studies

adolescents, 169, 212, 214-215

adults, 228, 229, 271

calcium, 314

children, 164, 168, 211-212



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