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Households (share of all households)
Age of head
Children < 18
Adults > 65
% receiving AFDC
Source: New Jersey data are from Garvey and Espenshade (1996: Tables I and 2). California data are from Clune (1996: Tables 3a and 4a).
spending on Medicaid, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and Supplemental Security Income (SSI), general state welfare assistance, pharmaceutical assistance for the elderly and disabled, municipal aid to local governments, and property tax reimbursements.27 All these local and state government services are treated as private goods by Garvey and Espenshade, each requiring a
The PUMS data base allows Garvey and Espenshade to allocate education spending at both the state and local level to native and immigrant households by their geographic location; higher education spending by enrollment status; all state and local transfers to households (Medicaid, AFDC, SSI, general assistance, pharmaceutical assistance) and training programs by participation status and income; state-to-locality aid by geographical location; property tax relief by income and owner/renter status and geographical location; and general municipal government spending by geographical location. Finally, a few state expenditures could not be allocated to individual households through the PUMS data base. These programs include state spending on general government administration, public safety and criminal justice, health, community development, transportation, and environmental management. These expenditures are allocated to all households on a uniform basis, after deducting an estimate of general state services provided to the business sector, estimated by state taxes paid by the business sector.