Clune (1997) provides the fiscal analysis necessary to estimate the average fiscal balance for immigrant-headed households and native households for the state of California. The primary data source for Clune's analysis is the Current Population Survey for March 1995, providing detailed fiscal information for 4,590 California households. This survey is supplemented by data from state and local government budgets for fiscal year 1994-95. Like the Garvey and Espenshade study of New Jersey, the Clune study of California identifies program use by individual households. Households are assigned to native or immigrant groups by the country of origin of the household's head: U.S. native, or European/Canadian, Asian, Latin American, or other immigrant (of African or Oceanic origin). For each household in each nativity group, Clune estimates taxes paid and services received at both the state and local levels of government.

Public services provided at the state level to California households include Medi-Cal health care coverage and AFDC and SSI income transfers, state aid for K-12 education, state support for higher education, state police, corrections, and justice, public works, government administration, transportation, environment and recreation, and state assistance to local governments. Services provided by local governments include local spending on K-12 education, community colleges, police and fire protection, transportation, libraries, public health, public works, general low-income assistance, and general government administration. Like Garvey and Espenshade, Clune assumes each of these services is a private good, requiring a proportional increase in spending to protect services for native residents.32

Taxes and fees collected by (or in the case of the sales tax, for) local governments include property tax, sales tax, and miscellaneous fees and charges. As in the New Jersey study, renters are assumed to bear the full burden of local property taxation. Taxes and fees collected for the state government and borne by the household sector include personal income tax, sales tax, a state disability insur-

32  

That is, all state and local public services are assumed to be "private" goods (α = 1); see note 18 above. For all redistribution programs, Clune estimates an average benefit per recipient and allocates that average expenditure to qualifying households as identified in the CPS data. K-12 education expenditures are estimated as a state-wide average outlay per child ($5,363 per child) and allocated to households by the number of school-age children in the household. Additional bilingual education costs per eligible child ($101/child) are allocated to the households according to the average number of qualifying children per household. For higher education benefits, a state-wide average is estimated and allocated to those households who list a family member attending a state college or university. Costs of incarceration could not be identified by nativity; thus state prison expenditures are allocated equally to all households in Clune's study. As for the New Jersey study, all other state and local expenditures are allocated on an equal per household basis, after deducting an estimate of general state services provided to the business sector, estimated by state and local taxes paid by the business sector.



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