before Congress and has consulted for the U.S. Treasury, the Office of Management and Budget, the Finance Ministries of Sweden and New Zealand, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. He has a B.A. from Yale University and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

GEORGE J. BORJAS is a professor of public policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; he is also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. Prior to joining the Harvard faculty, he was a professor of economics at the University of California, San Diego. He has conducted extensive research on many facets of the economic impact of immigration and has written widely on immigration-related issues both for scholarly journals and the popular press. His current research interests include immigration, the role of ethnicity in the U.S. economy, and the impact of international trade on the labor market. He has a bachelor's degree in economics and mathematics from St. Peter's College and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Columbia University.

BARRY EDMONSTON is a study director with the Committee on Population. He has been involved in demographic research and teaching at Stanford University and Cornell University, and he was senior research associate with the program for research on immigration policy at the Urban Institute. For the Committee on National Statistics of the National Research Council, he was study director for a panel study on the U.S. census, and also for workshops on immigration statistics and on federal standards for race and ethnicity classification. He has done research on demographic methods, especially on the methodology of population projections, and on questions of immigration and immigration policy. He has a Ph.D. in demography from the University of Michigan.

J. THOMAS ESPENSHADE is professor of sociology and a faculty associate of the Office of Population Research at Princeton University. He was formerly senior research associate and director of the program in demographic studies at the Urban Institute. He is the coauthor of The Fourth Wave: California's Newest Immigrants and editor of Keys to Successful Immigration: Implications of the New Jersey Experience. He is a member of the academic advisory board for the new immigrant survey at RAND and of the Social Science Research Council's postdoctoral awards committee for the program on international migration; he served on the National Research Council's Panel to Evaluate Microsimulation Models for Social Welfare Programs. His research interests include patterns of undocumented migration to the United States, the fiscal impacts of new immigrants, and attitudes toward U.S. immigration. He is currently directing a study on the contributions of immigrants to the science and engineering workforce in the United States. He has a B.A. in economics from the College of Wooster, an



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