TABLE 2.11 The Role of Immigration in Selected Countries, Calendar Year 1990

Country

Immigrants per 1,000 Population

Number of Immigrants (thousands)

Percentage Foreign-Born in Country

Kuwait

150

325

60

Austria

16

123

6

Switzerland

15

101

16

Germany

11

842a

4

Canada

8

213

17

Australia

7

121

23

Sweden

6

53

6

Netherlands

5

81

5

Norway

4

16

3

Denmark

4

26

3

Israel

3

15

42

United States

3

656b

9

France

2

102

8

United Kingdom

1

52

3

Finland

1

7

1

Italy

1

43

1

Japan

1

82

1

a The high number of immigrants into Germany reflects, in large part, the arrival of ''Aussiedler," that is, persons of German origin from Central and Eastern European countries with a constitutional right to come to Germany. About 400,000 Aussiedler arrived in Germany in 1990. The flow of Aussiedler increased from 1986 to 1992, before Germany established a ceiling of 225,000 per year in 1993, with a waiting list for the remaining Aussiedler who wish to come to Germany.

b In addition to the 656,000 nonlegalized immigrants in 1990, there were 880,000 persons who adjusted their status to permanent resident under the terms of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. Most of the legalized residents who adjusted their status had lived in the United States since 1982. If the total of both the legalized and nonlegalized immigrants are combined, there was a total of 1,090,000 new permanent resident aliens in 1990, comprising 10 new aliens per 1,000 population.

Source: International Centre for Migration Policy Development (1994:53); United Nations (1991:Tables 28, 30, and 31; 1996:Table 3); Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (1995).

have over 15 percent. Several countries, including Finland, Italy, and Japan, have relatively few foreign-born persons.

Within their own numerical limits, countries also differ in their policies concerning whom to admit. This variety is revealed in Table 2.12, which divides immigrants in 1991 into four categories; employment related, family reunification, asylees and refugees, and those admitted based explicitly on ethnicity.



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