TABLE 2.12 Composition of Immigration, by Type of Admission, Calendar Year 1991 (percentage)

Country

Employment Related

Family Reunificaton

Asylee/Refugee

Ethnic Background

France

47

19

19

15

Austria

43

12

45

0

Australia

37

50

14

0

Netherlands

33

17

42

8

Canada

29

42

29

0

Norway

29

36

35

0

United States

29

49

21

0

United Kingdom

28

40

28

4

Switzerland

27

31

43

0

Germany

20

14

46

20

Finland

19

21

25

35

Denmark

12

32

55

0

Sweden

7

49

44

0

 

Source: International Centre for Migration Policy Development (1994:55).

Employment-related immigration is defined on the basis of a labor permit issued before entry. For European countries, labor immigration also includes foreign labor within the framework of the free European Union and Nordic labor circulation zones. Family-reunification immigration is based on a residence permit issued to kin of a resident in the country. The category labeled "ethnic background" refers to "Aussiedler" visas in Germany29 and groups allowed to immigrate into France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom because of colonial obligations. A U.S. program of this kind extends the right to immigrate to past employees of the Panama Canal Company, an obligation undertaken as part of the Panama Canal Treaty to turn the canal and the Canal Zone over to the government of Panama. In the case of Finland, the category comprises ethnic Finns arriving from the former Soviet Union. Finally, refugees are those from other countries who are fleeing persecution.

Several European countries use a "guest-worker" system in addition to permanent residence immigration. Germany, for example, has received a large number of temporary guest-workers from Turkey, who entered Germany on specific work contracts for a limited time. Some guest-workers have remained in Germany for many years and have recently availed themselves of the German asylum

29  

Aussiedler admissions are ethnic Germans from other parts of Europe. Under laws passed in Germany in the early 1950s, ethnic Germans have a right to settle in Germany upon establishment of their German ancestry.



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