Page 192

7—
Conclusions and Recommendations

Assuming that private industry will take the lead in mainstream product development and short-term research, the steering committee presents here recommendations for research that it believes federal research agencies should encourage.1 Federal initiatives that emphasize long-term goals beyond the horizon of most commercial efforts and that may thus entail added risk have the potential to move the whole information technology enterprise into new modes of thinking and to stimulate discovery of new technologies for the coming century. Of course, work should continue in current areas that have demonstrated promise, but the emphasis here is on opening up new opportunities. Five of the areas elaborated on under recommendations 2 and 3 in this chapter are designated for highest-priority attention because of their potential for contributing to the development of effective every-citizen interfaces.

Recommendation 1: Break away from 1960s technologies and paradigms. Major attempts should be made to find new paradigms for human-machine interaction that employ new modes and media for input and output and that involve new conceptualizations of application interfaces.

Needed in the technical community is a period analogous to the 1960s when a variety of paradigms were tried using emerging technologies of that time. The view then was of a single user interacting with a single



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 192
Page 192 7— Conclusions and Recommendations Assuming that private industry will take the lead in mainstream product development and short-term research, the steering committee presents here recommendations for research that it believes federal research agencies should encourage.1 Federal initiatives that emphasize long-term goals beyond the horizon of most commercial efforts and that may thus entail added risk have the potential to move the whole information technology enterprise into new modes of thinking and to stimulate discovery of new technologies for the coming century. Of course, work should continue in current areas that have demonstrated promise, but the emphasis here is on opening up new opportunities. Five of the areas elaborated on under recommendations 2 and 3 in this chapter are designated for highest-priority attention because of their potential for contributing to the development of effective every-citizen interfaces. Recommendation 1: Break away from 1960s technologies and paradigms. Major attempts should be made to find new paradigms for human-machine interaction that employ new modes and media for input and output and that involve new conceptualizations of application interfaces. Needed in the technical community is a period analogous to the 1960s when a variety of paradigms were tried using emerging technologies of that time. The view then was of a single user interacting with a single

OCR for page 192
Page 193 terminal using a mouse, menus, and windows to open documents within a local application. The new view should take into account the tasks and technologies of the present and should enable a variety of interactions between humans and machines for communication, information retrieval, and performance of tasks in any of a variety of environments. Moreover, new approaches should enable users to immerse themselves in computer-mediated interactions and should include the option of involving many humans and machines in collaborative activities. New paradigms should emphasize the new role of information technology in society as a mediator among individuals, groups of individuals, and networked machines. The steering committee's first recommendation is a call not to replace visual interfaces but rather to infuse them with new power and capability through document-centric design, speech, gesture, agents, position-aware and pressure-sensitive input devices, touch screens, and other emerging technologies and techniques. It also emphasizes bringing to fruition equally important new interface strategies, such as speech and voice response, that will carry the power of computing to environments and populations not served today. Today's interfaces often require too much of a user's vision and motor control in situations, such as driving, that present environmental distractions, or they assume physical or other abilities that many potential users may lack. Coordinated research across several disciplines is necessary to develop new technologies and paradigms that address the psychological, organizational, and societal characteristics of every citizen. This interdisciplinary research should include the testing and evaluation of new interface technologies and paradigms in laboratory or field experiments or other empirical studies involving people who are representative of the citizenry. The research agenda should acknowledge that the human-machine interface is more than screen deep and should consider every aspect of a person's experience in using computing and communications. People should be able to concentrate on the tasks or purposes for which they are using applications and should experience the interface as an aid rather than an obstacle to achieving success. People should experience a human-problem domain interaction rather than a human-machine interaction. Several technological and design constraints should be considered in developing a research agenda: • Architectures are needed for interfaces that have wide spectrum and are easily learnable. Such systems should have simple and semantically obvious commands so that novices can use them immediately. They also should have many levels of increasingly sophisticated capabilities

OCR for page 192
Page 194   that can be learned incrementally, so that people can move gracefully into more advanced and efficient uses. Such systems could be used in very sophisticated ways by experienced users. • Systems should support modality and medium independence. Research should be fostered to enable anytime, anywhere, anyone interfaces that enable people to interact with systems using whatever modalities and media are available and convenient at a given time (consistent with the functions being performed). Such interfaces would support the goals of (1) ubiquitous and nomadic access so that a user can communicate on the road, down the hall from the office, calling in via telephone, and so forth; (2) equipment and communications system independence-use of low versus high bandwidth, one medium (e.g., audio, video, text) versus another, and so on; and (3) user ability independence, with special concern for people with disabilities and for the changes in abilities that typically accompany aging. • Human-machine interfaces should support group (multiperson and multimachine) activities that are work oriented, social, or conducted for other purposes; the groups could be formal, established, or short term and ad hoc. In particular, interfaces should support communities of practice in which many individuals can participate, each contributing incrementally. To build interfaces that provide such support requires further development of theories of dialogue, theories of group behavior, and theories of joint planning and problem solving. • Interfaces to the national information infrastructure should treat the two directions of communications-to and from individual citizens-more evenhandedly. Historically, with respect to elements of the NII such as broadcast television, citizens have been passive consumers of information. The evolving NII opens prospects for systems and interfaces that provide more flexibility in who can send and receive information, from what locations, and in what manner, as well as more flexibility and ease for people to move between communications- and information-centric activities. • Information resources should have more attractive means of entry than those available so far. Two possibilities that could merit further research include (1) the concept of hyper-television that enables a viewer to pursue a presented object or event into cyberspace or (2) electronic encyclopedias with ubiquitous pointers into electronic libraries and other sources. • Methods are needed that enable citizens to achieve the security and privacy they desire. Security-related features can be inconvenient to use; better interfaces could lower the barriers that have deterred their use historically.

OCR for page 192
Page 195 Recommendation 2: Invest in the research required to provide the component subsystems needed for every-citizen interfaces. Research is needed that is aimed at both making technological advances and gaining understanding of the human and organizational capabilities these advances would support. • Determine the needs of citizens: highest priority. Apply available sociological, psychological, and human-computer interface methodologies to try to understand the problems and the needs basic to effective human-machine interaction. Undertake studies to find the kinds of functionality and interfaces that will be most important. Such studies may be empirical or historical to determine what was successful in the past. For example, the usefulness and success of existing public information access projects, such as the Library of Congress system, could be examined. Proposed new technologies could be simulated and measurements made of their levels of success in real-life situations. Information so gathered should then guide decisions on what the most important technical areas are for research emphasis. • Input technologies-Explore the promise of speech recognition and associated natural language processing: highest priority. Do the work necessary to open up speech as a viable input for as many new uses as possible. The steering committee is impressed that the range of potential applications for spoken input is tremendous, especially for hands-busy, eyes-busy situations; telephone applications; and differently abled persons. This need, coupled with the rate of progress in speech recognition, points to the importance of continued emphasis on this line of research. An important area that needs more attention is the construction of prototype speech interactive systems and their measurement and refinement in actual use. • Improve understanding of computer vision, gesture sensing, and multimodal languages for user input. Computer vision can be used to gather data a user may wish to transfer to the network and to keep the system updated regarding the user's presence and responsiveness. Gesture recognition could involve the development of gesture languages and gesture support of multimodal languages. • Measure the effectiveness of all of the above technologies when used by humans in problem-solving situations. • Output technologies, including eyeglass displays; flexible, portable, and compact displays; high-resolution displays; virtual reality; haptic devices; mechanical actuators; voice and artificial sound; and multimodal generation of output. Develop display technologies to match human vision. Create audio output matched to the dynamic range of human hearing. Measure the effectiveness of these technologies in a systematic program to evaluate their relative strengths for human users.

OCR for page 192
Page 196 • Ensure modality and medium independence: highest priority. Media independence and modality independence are goals that, to this time, have not been extensively researched and, in the new context, should be-for nomadic systems, for low-cost systems, and for people with disabilities. Develop mechanisms that enable translations between internal machine representations of information and various human representations (e.g., visual, audio, haptic). Research in this area will encourage the use of a common machine representation that can be flexibly translated into or from any available modes or media. Determine human multimedia and multimodal communications capabilities. Enumerate and prioritize human capabilities to modulate energy (as described in Chapter 3). • Agent technologies. An important option for delivering services to users will involve agent technologies that interact with people to help determine their needs and then select domain-appropriate mechanisms to respond. The required technologies include traditional computer science mechanisms (such as those needed for database retrieval) and artificial intelligence capabilities (including representation of concepts and reasoning). An array of research topics needs to be addressed, including acquisition of user requests, user modeling, problem solving, and methodologies for summarizing and presenting internally stored data. • Network access devices. A large variety of devices are needed, including mobile terminals, inexpensive minimalist systems, and full multimedia systems with virtual reality capabilities. The steering committee expects that industry will perform most of this work. Recommendation 3: Encourage research on systems-level design and development of human-machine interfaces that support multiperson, multimachine groups as well as individuals. • Develop theories and architectures for collaboration: highest priority. Develop theories of collaboration and problem solving. Develop architectures for networked people and machines that enable mutual awareness, easy communication across space and time, and individual and joint contributions to common goals. Provide ways to support community building and other social aspects of communication. Theories of collaboration have not been well developed historically, and the advent of networking makes this an important new priority for research. • Human-centered design methodologies. Continue the study of human behavior in the use of technology for problem solving and the design of systems for improved productivity. Investigate the social effects of different interface choices, particularly the ways in which different presentation and communications choices affect people's interactions with media. To obtain feedback and to facilitate efforts at improvement, encourage

OCR for page 192
Page 197   social science research into how well the public is being served by such technology. • Test proposed new designs: highest priority. Build experimental human-machine systems, for individual users or groups, using proposed technologies or simulations of them. Test, refine, and install them in applications environments, and measure their effectiveness. Industry, under the pressure of competition, has in recent years tended to minimize user testing in favor of quickly getting products to customers. Marketplace success has become the de facto test for usability by humans. Unfortunately, this approach does not lead to the kind of understanding that enables reasoned design of useful devices. Better understanding gained from testing and evaluation is needed to achieve breakthroughs to new paradigms, and to address the needs of differently abled individuals whose market buying power may be inferior to that of majority groups. Note 1. In addition to supporting research, the government can encourage forward-looking approaches to accessibility for every citizen to the national information infrastructure by requiring adequate development processes and evaluation in the procurement and use of systems for public service facilities under government control.

OCR for page 192
Page 198 Bibliography Anderson, David. 1996. ''Diamond Park and Spline: A Social Virtual Reality System with 3d Animation, Spoken Interaction, and Runtime Modifiability," Technical Report Tr96-02, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratory. Also available on-line at http://Atlantic. merl/com/reports/index.html. Anderson, D.B., Tora Bikson, Sally Ann Law, and Bridger M. Mitchell. 1995. "Universal Access to E-Mail: Feasibility and Societal Implications," RAND, Santa Monica, CA. Anthes, Gary H. 1993. "New Devices to Propel Technology into Social Fabric, Report Says," Computerworld, August 23, pp. 78. Arar, Yardena. 1996. "Registering Disappointment-Microsoft's Bob Celebrates Lonely First Birthday," Computer Retail Week, No. 624, January. Argyle, M., et al., 1976. Gaze and Mutual Gaze, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. Asia-Pacific Telecommunications Network. 1995. "Conference on Competition in Asia's Telecom Markets," Asia-Pacific Telecommunications Network, IBC Technical Services, Ltd., Singapore. Austin, J.L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Badler, N., et al. 1993. "Real-Time Control of a Virtual Human Using Minimal Sensors," Presence, Vol. 2, No. 1. Bank, David. 1996. "Microsoft Moves to Control the PC Screen," Wall Street Journal, December 5, p. B2. Bates, Joseph. 1994. "The Role of Emotions in Believable Agents," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 122-125. Bear, John, John Dowding, and Elizabeth Shriberg. 1992. "Integrating Multiple Knowledge Sources for Detection and Correction of Repairs in Human-Computer Dialog," Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Newark, DE, ACL, Somerset, NJ. Bender, Michael A., and Donna K. Slonim. 1994. "The Power of Team Exploration: Two Robots Can Learn Unlabeled Directed Graphs," Proceedings of the 35th Annual Symposium

OCR for page 192
Page 199 on Foundations of Computer Science, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 75-85. Benford, S., et al. 1995. "User Embodiment in Collaborative Virtual Environments," Proceedings of SIGCHI '95, ACM, New York, pp. 242-249. Bertino, E., and L. Martino. 1993. Object-Oriented Database Systems: Concepts and Architectures, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Bikson, T.K. 1996. "Groupware at the World Bank," in Groupware and Teamwork, C. Ciborra, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, pp. 145-183. Bikson, T.K., and J.D. Eveland. 1990. "The Interplay of Work Group Structures and Computer Support," Intellectual Teamwork, R. Kraut, J. Galegher, and C. Egido, eds., Erlbaum and Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, pp. 245-290. Also available from RAND as N-3429-MF. Blanchard, C., and S. Burgess. 1990. "Reality Built for Two," Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, ACM SIGGRAPH, Dallas, ACM, New York. Boden, Margaret A. 1994. "Agents and Creativity," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 17-121. Boff, Kenneth R., and Janet E. Lincoln. 1988. Engineering Data Compendium, Volume I, H.G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH. Bratman, Michael. 1992. "Shared Cooperative Activity," Philosophical Review, Vol. 101, pp. 327-341. Bretier, P., and M.D. Sadek. 1996. "A Rational Agent as the Kernel of a Cooperative Spoken Dialogue System: Implementing a Logical Theory of Interaction," ECAI-96 Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures and Language, Budapest, Hungary. Bretier, P., M.D. Sadek, V. Cadoret, A. Cozannet, P. Dupont, A. Ferrieux, and F. Panaget. 1995. "A Cooperative Spoken Dialogue System Based on a Rational Agent Model: A First Implementation on the AGS Application," Proceedings of the ESCA/ETR Workshop on Spoken Dialogue Systems, Hanstholm, Denmark. Bricken, W., and G. Coco. 1993. "The VEOS Project," Technical Report, Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle. Brill, Eric. 1993. "Automatic Grammar Induction and Parsing Free Text: A Transformation-Based Approach," Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Columbus, OH, ACL, Somerset, NJ. Brown, John Seely, and Paul Duguid. 1992. "Enacting Design for the Workplace," Usability: Turning Technologies into Tools, Paul Adler and Terry Winograd, eds., Oxford University Press, U.K., pp. 164-198. Brown, John S., Paul Duguid, and Susan Haviland. 1994. "Toward Informed Participation: Six Scenarios in Search of Democracy in the Information Age," Aspen Institute Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 49-73. Bullen, C., and J. Bennet. 1990. "Learning from User Experiences with Groupware," Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ACM, New York, pp. 291-302. Burdea, G. 1996. Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality, John Wiley & Sons, New York. Burrows, Peter. 1996. "The Day of the Designer," Business Week, June 24, pp. 114. Buttolo, P., D. Kung, and B. Hannaford. 1995. "Manipulation in Real, Virtual, and Remote Environments," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vancouver, BC, October, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA. Cabinet Minister for Public Service (United Kingdom). "A Prospectus for the Electronic Delivery of Government Services," U.K. Green Paper. Available on-line at http://www.open.gov.uk/citu/cituhome.htm.

OCR for page 192
Page 200 Carbonell, J. 1992. "Machine Learning: A Maturing Field," Machine Learning, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 5-7. Card, Stuart K., Thomas P. Moran, and Allen Newell. 1983. The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, Lawarence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ. Carlsson, C., and O. Hagsand. 1993. "DIVE: A Multi-User Virtual Reality System," Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA. Carlton, Jim. 1995. "Acer Is Launching Personal Computers Designed to Fit in as Fixture in Homes," Wall Street Journal, September 5, p. B2. Carroll, J.M. 1990. "The Growth of Cognitive Modeling in Human-Computer Interaction Since GOMS," Human Computer Interaction, Vol. 5, pp. 221-265. Chung, Woo Young, and Suzanne Iacono. 1996. "Why Do People Use On-line Services?," working paper, Boston University, Boston, MA. Ciborra, C. 1992. "From Thinking to Tinkering: The Grassroots of Strategic Information Systems," The Information Society, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 297-310. Ciborra, C., and G. Patriotta. 1996. "Groupware and Teamwork in New Product Development: The Case of Consumer Goods Multinational," Groupware and Teamwork, John Wiley & Sons, London, pp. 121-144. Cindio, F.D., and G.D. Michelis. 1986. "Chaos as a Coordinating Technology," Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ACM Press, New York. Clark, Don, and Kyle Pope. 1995. "Poll Finds Americans Like Using PCs but May Find Them to Be Stressful," Wall Street Journal, April 10. Clark, Don, and Evan Ramstad. 1997. "Zenith, Thomson Move to Bring Internet to TVs," Wall Street Journal, January 8, p. A6. Clark, Herbert H. 1996. Using Language, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, and New York. Clark, H.H., and E.F. Shaefer. 1987. "Collaborating on Contributions to Conversations," Language and Cognitive Processes, Vol. 11, pp. 1-23. Clerc, S. 1994. "Estrogen Brigades and 'Bit Tits' Threads: Media Fandom Online and Off," Wired Women: Gender and New Realities in Cyberspace, L. Cherny and E.R. Weise, eds., Seal Press Feminist, Seattle, WA. Codella, C., et al. 1993. "A Toolkit for Developing Multi-User, Distributed Virtual Environments," Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 401-407. Cohen, P., and H. Levesque. 1990. "Intention Is Choice with Commitment," Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 42, pp. 263-310. Cohen, Philip R., and Sharon L. Oviatt. 1994. The Role of Voice Input for Human-Machine Communication, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR. Cole, R.A., and L. Hirschman. 1995. "The Challenge of Spoken Language Systems: Research Directions for the Nineties," IEEE Transactions in Speech and Audio Processing, Vol. 3, pp. 1-21. Cole, R.A., et al., eds. 1996. Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology, Cambridge University Press, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Available on-line at http://cse.ogi.edu/CSLU/HLTsurvey/. Cole, Ron, and Lynette Hirschman. 1992. The Challenge of Spoken Language Systems: Research Directions for the Nineties, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA, February. Collins, Michael John. 1996. "A New Statistical Parser Based on Bigram Lexical Dependencies," Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Santa Cruz, CA, ACL, Somerset, NJ. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), National Research Council.

OCR for page 192
Page 201 1994a. Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond, National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), National Research Council. 1994b. Information Technology in the Service Society, National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), National Research Council. 1995. Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation's Information Infrastructure, National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), National Research Council. 1996. The Unpredictable Certainty: Information Infrastructure Through 2000, National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Conklin, Jeff. 1987. "Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey," Computer, September, pp. 17-41. Constant, David, Sara Kiesler, and Lee Sproull. 1996. "The Kindness of Strangers: On the Usefulness of Weak Ties for Technical Advice," Organization Science, Vol. 7, pp. 119-135. Cortese, Amy. 1996. "Software's Holy Grail," Business Week, June 24, pp. 83-92. Crossen, Cynthia. 1996. "Print Scrn, Num Lock and Other Mysteries of the Keyboard," Wall Street Journal, October 22, pp. B1 and B11. Cross-Industry Working Team. 1995. "Nomadicity in the NII," Corporation For National Research Initiatives, 1895 Preston White Drive, Suite 100, Reston, VA 22091-5434. Deerwester, S., S.T. Dumais, G.W. Furnas, T.K. Landauer, and R. Harshman. 1990. "Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis," Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 391-407. DeFanti, T. 1996. "Real-Time Visualization and Virtual Reality as a Future Every-Citizen Interface for the National Information Infrastructure," Toward an Every-Citizen Interface for the National Information Infrastructure Workshop, Washington, DC, August. Available on-line at http://www.nap.edu. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). 1992. Proceedings of the Fourth Message Understanding Conference (MUC-4), June, San Mateo, Morgan-Kaufmann, Los Altos, CA. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). 1993. Proceedings of the Fifth Message Understanding Conference (MUC-5), August, San Mateo, Morgan-Kaufmann, Los Altos, CA. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA). 1995a. Proceedings of the Sixth Message Understanding Conference (MUC-6), November, Columbia, MD, Morgan-Kaufmann, San Francisco. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA). 1995b. Proceedings of the Spoken Language Systems Technology Workshop, January, Austin, TX, Morgan-Kaufmann, San Francisco. Denning, Peter, and Pamela Dargan. 1996. "Action-Centered Design," Bringing Design to Software, Terry Winograd, ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, pp. 105-120. DeWitt, D., et al. 1994. "Client/Server Paradise," Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, Santiago, Chile, Morgan-Kaufmann, San Francisco. Donath, Judith. 1996. "Inhabiting the Virtual City: The Design of Social Environments for Electronic Communities," unpublished doctoral disertation, Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Dourish, P., A. Adler, V. Bellotti, and A. Henderson. 1994. "Your Place or Mine? Learning from Long-Term Use of Video Communication," Technical Report, Rank Xerox EuroParc, Number EPC-94-105. Dourish, P., J. Holmes, A. MacLean, P. Marqvardsen, and A. Zbyslaw. 1996. "Freeflow:

OCR for page 192
Page 202 Mediating Between Representation and Action in Workflow Systems," Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Boston, MA, Nov. 16-20, ACM Press, New York, pp. 190-198. Dubrovsky, V.J., S. Kiesler, and B.N. Sethna. 1991. "The Equalization Phenomenon: Status Effects in Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Decision Making Groups," Human Computer Interaction, Vol. 6, pp. 119-146. Dumais, S., and D. Schmitt. 1991. "Iterative Searching of an On-Line Database," Proceedings of the Human Factors Society, Human Factors Society, Santa Monica, CA, pp. 396-402. Edmonds, Ernest A. 1994. "Support for Collaborative Design: Agents and Emergence," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, July, pp. 41-47. Egan, Dennis E. 1988. "Individual Differences in Human-Computer Interaction," Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, Martin E. Helander, ed., Elsevier Science, New York. Elstrom, Peter. 1996. "'Operator, Get Me Cyberspace,'" Business Week, June 24, pp. 103-110. Etzioni, Oren, and Daniel Weld. 1994. "A Softbot-based Interface to the Internet," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 72-76. Etzioni, Oren, and Daniel S. Weld. 1995. Intelligent Agents on the Internet: Fact, Fiction, and Forecast, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, May 30. Eveland, J.D., and T.K. Bikson. 1987. "Evolving Electronic Communication Networks: An Empirical Assessment," Office: Technology and People, Vol. 3, pp. 103-128. Eveland, J.D., A. Blanchard, W. Brown, and J. Mattocks. 1994. "The Role of 'Help Networks' in Facilitating Use of CSCW Tools," Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ACM, New York, pp. 265-274. Feiner, S.K., and K.R. McKeown. 1991. "Automating the Generation of Coordinated Multimedia Explanations," IEEE Computer, Vol. 24, No. 10, pp. 31-41. Finholt, T., L. Sproull, and S. Kiesler. 1991. "Communication and Performance in Ad Hoc Talk Groups," Human Computer Interaction, Vol. 6, pp. 291-325. Fischer, G. 1991. "Supporting Learning on Demand with Design Environments," Proceedings of the International Conference on the Learning Sciences in 1991 (Evanston, IL), L. Birnbaum, ed., Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 165-172. Fischer, G. 1994a. "Domain-Oriented Design Environments," Automated Software Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 177-203. Fischer, G. 1994b. "Turning Breakdowns into Opportunities for Creativity, Knowledge-Based Systems," Special Issue, Creativity and Cognition, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 221-232. Fischer, G., and K. Nakakoji. 1991. "Making Design Objects Relevant to the Task at Hand," Proceedings of AAAI-91, Ninth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI-Press/MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 67-73. Fischer, G., A.C. Lemke, and T. Schwab. 1985. "Knowledge-Based Help Systems," Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, San Francisco, ACM, New York, pp. 161-167. Fischer, G., et al. 1991. "The Role of Critiquing in Cooperative Problem Solving," ACM Transactions on Information Systems, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 123-151. Fish, R.S., et al. 1990. "The Video Window System in Informal Communication," Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ACM Press, New York, pp. 1-11. Flohr, Udo. 1996. "3-D for Everyone," Byte, October. Available on-line at http://www.byte.com/art/9610/sec6/art1.htm. Flores, Fernando, M. Graves, Brad Hartfield, and Terry Winograd. 1988. "Computer Systems and the Design of Organizational Interactions," ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 153-172.

OCR for page 192
Page 210 Olson, J., and G.M. Olson. 1995. "What Mix of Video and Audio Is Useful for Small Groups Doing Remote Real-time Design Work," Proceedings of SIGCHI'95, ACM, New York, pp. 362-368. Orlikowski, W. 1996. "Developing with Notes," Groupware and Teamwork, C. Ciborra, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, pp. 31-71. Oviatt, Sharon L. 1996. "User-centered Modeling for Spoken Language and Multimodal Interfaces," Center for Human-Computer Communication, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR. Oviatt, Sharon L., P.R. Cohen, and M.Q. Wang. 1994. "Toward Interface Design for Human Language Technology: "Modality and Structure as Determinants of Linguistic Complexity," Speech Communication (European Speech Communication Association), No. 15, pp. 283-300. Parise, Salvatore, Lee Sproull, Sara Kielser, and Keith Waters. 1996. "My Partner Is a Real Dog: Cooperation with Social Agents," Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ACM, New York. Patriotta, G. 1996. "Learning and Appropriating Groupware in the Development of New Products and Processes," Groupware and Teamwork, C. Ciborra, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, pp. 138-158. Perlman, Gary. 1989. User Interface Development, Graduate Curriculum Module SEI-CM-17-1.1, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. Pescovitz, David. 1996. "The Future of the PC," Wired, September, p. 80. Pitta, Julie. 1995. "New Hope for Computer Illiterates?" Forbes, January 16, pp. 88-89. Plaisant, Catherine, et al. 1997. "Bringing Treasures to the Surface: Iterative Design for the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program," Proceedings of the SIGCHI '97, March, ACM, New York. Pope, Kyle. 1994. "Electric Utilities Light Out for Europe's Phone Business," Wall Street Journal, December 2, p. B4. Power, Kevin. 1994. "Neither Rain, Nor Sleet, Nor Darkness of Display ...?" Government Computer News, October 17, pp. 11-14. Preece, J., et al. 1994. Human-Computer Interaction, Addison-Wesley, Workingham, U.K. Proceedings of Human Language Technology Workshop. 1993. Plainsboro, NJ. Morgan-Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA. Proceedings of Speech and Natural Language Workshop. 1992. Harriman, NY. Morgan-Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA. Proceedings of Speech and Natural Language Workshop. 1991. Pacific Grove, CA. Morgan-Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA. Proceedings of Speech and Natural Language Workshop. 1990. Hidden Valley, PA. Morgan-Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA. Proceedings of the Spoken Language Systems Technology Workshop. 1994. Austin, TX. Morgan-Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA. Raskin, Jef. 1997. "Looking for a Humane Interface: Will Computers Ever Become Easy to Use?," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 40, pp. 98-101. Revzin, Philip. 1995. "Info-Highway Builders Seek to Change African Nation's Development Priorities," Wall Street Journal, June 9, p. A5E. Reynolds, T.J., and J. Gutman. 1988. "Laddering Theory, Method, Analysis, and Interpretation," Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 28, pp. 11-31. Rheingold, Harold. 1994. Virtual Communities: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Rich, C., and C.L. Sidner. 1996. "Adding a Collaborative Agent to Direct-Manipulation Interfaces," Proceedings of UIST.

OCR for page 192
Page 211 Rich, C., and C.L. Sidner. 1997a. "Segmented Interaction History in a Collaborative Interface Agent," Proceedings of the Intelligent User Interfaces Conference. Rich, C., and C.L. Sidner. 1997b. "COLLAGEN: A Toolkit for Collaborative Interfaces," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomous Agents, ACM, New York. Richman, Dan. 1995. "Speech Replaces Point & Click-Boeing and Others Benefit from Voice Recognition, Synthesis," InformationWeek, Issue 534, July 3. Riecken, Doug. 1994a. "A Conversation with Marvin Minsky About Agents," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 23-29. Riecken, Doug. 1994b. "Intelligent Agents," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 20-21. Riecken, Doug. 1994c. "M: An Architecture of Integrated Agents," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 107-116, 146-147. Rigdon, Joan E. 1996. "Testing How Easy 'Easy' Really Is," Wall Street Journal, May 10, pp. B1 and B3. Rimé, B., and L. Schiaratura. 1991. "Gesture and Speech," Fundamentals of Nonverbal Behaviour, R.S. Feldmand and B. Rimé eds., New York Press, Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, pp. 239-281. Roe, D.B., and J.G. Wilpon, eds. 1994. Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines, National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Many chapters from this book were revised and published in the October 1995 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 92. Rogers, E.M. 1983. Diffusion of Innovation, Third Edition, Free Press, New York. Rosenschein, J., and G. Zlotkin. 1994. Rules of Encounter: Designing Conventions for Automated Negotiation Among Computers, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Rossney, Robert. 1996. "Metaworlds," Wired, June, pp. 142-146, 206-212. Roth, S.F., J. Kolojejchick, J. Mattis, and J. Goldstein. 1994. "Interactive Graphic Design Using Automatic Presentation Knowledge," Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Active Support for Interaction, Vol. 1, ACM, New York, April, pp. 112-117. Roussos, M. 1996. "Constructing Collaborative Stories Within Virtual Learning Landscapes," Proceedings of the European Conference on Artifical Intelligence in Education, September. Roy, T., and C. Cruz-Neira. 1995. "Cosmic Worm in the CAVE: Steering a High-Performance Computing Application from a Virtual Environment," Presence, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 121-129. Rubin, Andee. 1996. "Educational Technology: Support for Inquiry-Based Learning," TERC, Cambridge, MA. Available on-line at http://ra.terc.edu/alliance_resources_services/ reform/tech-infusion/ed_tech/ed_tech_intro.html. Russell, Stuart, and Peter Norvig. 1995. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Ryall, K., J. Marks, and S. Shieber. 1996. "An Interactive System for Drawing Graphs," GraphDrawing 96. Sager, Ira, and Robert D. Hof. 1996. "The Race Is on to Simplify," Business Week, June 24, pp. 72-75. Salton, G. 1989. "ASIS Panel on New Developments and Future Prospects for Electronic Databases," SIGIR 1989, ACM, New York, pp. 137-150. Sandberg, jared. 1996. "What Do They Do On-Line?" Wall Street Journal, December 9, p. R8. Sawyer, P., A. Flanders, and D. Wixon. 1996. "Making a Difference-The Impact of Inspections," Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, pp. 375-382.

OCR for page 192
Page 212 Scherr, A.L. 1993. "A New Approach to Business Processes," IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 80-98. Schuler, Doug. 1996. New Community Networks, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Schulzrinne, Henning. 1996. "World-Wide Web: Whence, Whither, What Next?" IEEE Network Magazine, March/April, pp. 1-14. Searle, John. 1990. Intentions in Communication, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Selker, Ted. 1994. "Coach: A Teaching Agent That Learns," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 92-99. Seneff, S., M. McCandless, and V. Zue. 1995. "Integrating Natural Language into the Word Graph Search for Simultaneous Speech Recognition and Understanding," Proceedings of Eurospeech, Madrid, September. Seybold, P. 1994. "How to Leapfrog Your Organization into the Twenty-first Century: Highlights from Patricia Seybold's 1994 Technology Forum," Patricia Seybold Group, New York, pp. 1-7. Shaw, C., and M. Green. 1993. "The MR Toolkit Peers Package and Environment," Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA. Shieber, Stuart M. 1983. "Sentence Disambiguation by a Shift-Reduce Parsing Technique," 21st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Cambridge, MA, ACL, Somerset, NJ. Shimoga, K.B. 1993. "A Survey of Perceptual Feedback Issues in Dexterous Telemanipulation," Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA. Shneiderman, Ben. 1988. "Direct Manipulation: A Step Beyond Programming Languages," IEEE Computer, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 57-69. Shneiderman, Ben. 1992. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Shneiderman, Ben. 1994. "Dynamic Queries for Visual Information Seeking," Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory, University of Maryland, College Park, January. Shneiderman, Ben, Don Byrd, and Bruce Croft. 1997. "Clarifying Search: A User-Interface Framework for Text Searches," D-Lib Magazine. Available on-line at http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january97/O1contents.html. Short, J., E. Williams, and B. Christie. 1976. The Social Psychology of Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, New York. Shu, L., and W. Flowers. 1992. "Groupware Experiences in Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design," Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ACM Press, New York, pp. 179-186. Sidner, Candace. 1983. "What the Speaker Means: The Recognition of Speakers' Plans in Discourse," International Journal of Computers and Mathematics, Vol. 9, pp. 71-82. Sidner, C. 1994a. "An Artificial Discourse Language for Collaborative Negotiation," Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence-94, Seattle, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 814-819. Sidner, C. 1994b. Negotiation in Collaborative Activity: A Discourse Analysis, Knowledge-Based Systems, 7(4): 265-267. Singh, G., L. Serra, H. Ping, and H. Ng. 1994. "BrickNet: A Software Toolkit for Network-Based Virtual Worlds," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 19-34. Smith, David C., et al. 1994. "KIDSIM: Programming Agents Without a Programming Language," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 55-67. Smith, Ronnie W., and D. Richard Hipp. 1994. Spoken Natural Language Dialog Systems, Oxford University Press, New York.

OCR for page 192
Page 213 Smith, Ronnie W., D. Richard Hipp, and Alan W. Biermann. 1995. "An Architecture for Voice Dialogue Systems Based on Prolog-style Theorem Proving," Computational Linguistics, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 281-320. Sproull, Lee, and Samer Faraj. 1995. "Atheism, Sex, and Databases: The Net as a Social Technology," Public Access to the Internet, Brian Kahin and James Keller, eds., pp. 62-81. Sproull, Lee, R. Subramani, Jan Walker, Sara Kiesler, and Keith Waters. 1996. "When the Interface Is a Face," Human Computer Interaction, Vol. 11, pp. 97-124. Stansfield, S. 1995. "An Application of Shared Virtual Reality to Situational Training," Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 156-161. Stefik, M., et al. 1987. "Beyond the Chalkboard: Computer Support for Collaboration and Problem Solving in Meetings," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 32-47. Stein, A., and E. Maier. 1995. Structuring Collaborative Information-Seeking Dialogues, Knowledge-Based Systems, 8(2-3):82-93. Steinmetz, Greg. 1995. "AT&T and Others Dislike German Deregulation Plan," Wall Street Journal, August 10, p. A6. Stock, Robert W. 1995. "Removing Roadblocks to Computer Use," Wall Street Journal, September 14. Storck, John, and Lee Sproull. 1995. "Through a Glass Darkly: What Do People Learn in Video Conferences?" Human Communication Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 197-219. Stork, David G., and Marcus Hennecke, eds. 1996. Speechreading by Humans and Machines: Models, Systems and Applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York. Suchman, Lucy. 1987. Plans and Situated Actions, Cambridge University Press, New York. Sullivan, K. 1996. "The Windows 95 User Interface: A Case Study in Usability Engineering," Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, pp. 473-480. Sycara, K.P. 1987. "Resolving Adversarial Conflicts: An Approach to Integrating Case-Based and Analytic Methods," unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology. Tang, J.C., and E. Isaacs. 1993. "Why Do Users Like Video?" Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 163-196. Tognazzini, Bruce. 1992. Tog on Interface, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Tognazzini, Bruce. 1996. Tog on Software Design, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Trace R&D Center. 1996a. CO-NET: Cooperative Database Distribution Network for Assistive Technology, 1996-97 Edition, Trace R&D Center, Madison, WI, Spring/Summer. Trace R&D Center. 1996b. Trace Resourcebook: Assistive Technology for Communication, Control and Computer Access, 1996-97 Edition, Trace R&D Center, Madison, WI. Turkle, Sherry. 1996. "Who Am We?" Wired, January, pp. 146-152, 194-199. University of Udine. 1996. Sixth International Conference on User Modeling, University of Udine, Italy, October. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1994. Americans with Disabilities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Available on-line at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disable.html. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1995. Population Profile of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1994. "The Information Infrastructure: Reaching Society's Goals," Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, September. U.S. Department of Education. 1992. 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

OCR for page 192
Page 214 Van Dam, Andries. 1997. "Post-WIMP User Interfaces," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 40, February, pp. 63-67. Vanderheiden, Gregg C. 1996. Reply comments in response to the Federal Communications Commission's Notice of Inquiry 96-198 Regarding Implementation of Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (Access to Telecommunications Services, Telecommunications Equipment, and Customer Premise's Equipment by Persons with Disabilities), WT Docket No. 96-198, submitted by G.C. Vanderheiden, Trace R&D Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Vanderheiden G., et al. 1986. "Human Interface Design and the Handicapped User," Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, pp. 291-297. Van House, Nancy. 1996. "User-Centered Iterative Design for Digital Libraries: The Cypress Experience," D-lib Magazine, February. Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. 1996. "The NC Follies: A Network Computer Is a Small Idea," Internet World. Available on-line at http://www.internetworld.com/1996/12/nc_follies.html. Venture Development Corporation. 1996a. "Five Characteristics of Good Interactive Kiosk Design." Venture Development Corporation, MA, June 14. Venture Development Corporation. 1996b. "Interactive Kiosks, New Horizons for Advanced Computing Technology: An Executive White Paper," Venture Development Corporation, MA. Venture Development Corporation. 1996c. "Surging Demand for Interactive Kiosks," Venture Development Corporation, MA, January 19. Verity, John W., and Paul C. Judge. 1996. "Making Computers Disappear," Business Week, June 24, pp. 118-119. Vince, John. 1995. Virtual Reality Systems, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Virzi, Robert A., and Paul Resnick. 1995. "Relief from the Audio Interface Blues: Expanding the Spectrum of Menu, List, and Form Styles," ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, Vol. 2, June, pp. 145-176. Available on-line at http://ccs.mit.edu/CCSWP184.html. Virzi, R.A., J.L. Sokolov, and D. Karis. 1996. "Usability Problem Identification Using Both Low- and High-Fidelity Prototype," Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Common Ground, pp. 236-243, ACM Press, New York. Wahlster, W., E. Andr, W. Finkler, J.J. Profitlich, and T. Rist. 1993. "Plan-Based Integration of Natural Language and Graphics Generation," Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 63, Nos.1-2, pp. 378-428. Waldman, Peter. 1995. "India Seeks to Open Huge Phone Market," Wall Street Journal, July 25. Wang, Q., M. Green, and C. Shaw. 1995. "EM-An Environment Manager for Building Networked Virtual Environments," Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 11-18. Wasser, Judith D. 1996. "Reform, Restructuring, and Technology Infusion," Technology Infusion and School Change, TERC, Cambridge, MA. Available on-line at http://ra.terc.edu/alliance_resources_services/reform/tech-infusion/reform/ reform_intro.html. Weiser, Mark. 1993a. "Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 36, No. 7, pp. 75-84. Weiser, Mark. 1993b. "Ubiquitous Computing," Computer, October, pp. 71-72. Weld, Daniel. 1995. "The Role of Intelligent Systems in the National Information Infrastructure," AI Magazine, Vol. 3, No. 16.

OCR for page 192
Page 215 Wiklund, Michael E., ed. 1994. Usability in Practice: How Companies Develop User-Friendly Products, Academic Press, Boston, MA. Wilson, E.O. 1971. The Insect Societies, Belknap/Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Winograd, T. 1988. "A Language/Action Perspective on the Design of Cooperative Work," Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 3-30. Woodward, P. 1993. "Interactive Scientific Visualization of Fluid Flow," IEEE Computer Magazine, Vol. 26, No. 10. October. Young, S.R., A.G. Hauptmann, W.H. Ward, E.T. Smith, and P. Werner. 1989. "High Level Knowledge Sources in Usable Speech Recognition Systems," Communications of the ACM, February, pp. 183-194. Zuckerman, Lawrence. 1996. "IBM to Market Software That Can Interpret Human Speech," New York Times, September 12. Available on-line at http://search.nytimes.com/web/docsroot/library/cyber/week/0912blue.html. PART II Background Paper

OCR for page 192

OCR for page 192
PART I I

OCR for page 192

OCR for page 192
BACKGROUND PAPER

OCR for page 192