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terminal using a mouse, menus, and windows to open documents within a local application. The new view should take into account the tasks and technologies of the present and should enable a variety of interactions between humans and machines for communication, information retrieval, and performance of tasks in any of a variety of environments. Moreover, new approaches should enable users to immerse themselves in computer-mediated interactions and should include the option of involving many humans and machines in collaborative activities. New paradigms should emphasize the new role of information technology in society as a mediator among individuals, groups of individuals, and networked machines.

The steering committee's first recommendation is a call not to replace visual interfaces but rather to infuse them with new power and capability through document-centric design, speech, gesture, agents, position-aware and pressure-sensitive input devices, touch screens, and other emerging technologies and techniques. It also emphasizes bringing to fruition equally important new interface strategies, such as speech and voice response, that will carry the power of computing to environments and populations not served today. Today's interfaces often require too much of a user's vision and motor control in situations, such as driving, that present environmental distractions, or they assume physical or other abilities that many potential users may lack.

Coordinated research across several disciplines is necessary to develop new technologies and paradigms that address the psychological, organizational, and societal characteristics of every citizen. This interdisciplinary research should include the testing and evaluation of new interface technologies and paradigms in laboratory or field experiments or other empirical studies involving people who are representative of the citizenry.

The research agenda should acknowledge that the human-machine interface is more than screen deep and should consider every aspect of a person's experience in using computing and communications. People should be able to concentrate on the tasks or purposes for which they are using applications and should experience the interface as an aid rather than an obstacle to achieving success. People should experience a human-problem domain interaction rather than a human-machine interaction.

Several technological and design constraints should be considered in developing a research agenda:

Architectures are needed for interfaces that have wide spectrum and are easily learnable. Such systems should have simple and semantically obvious commands so that novices can use them immediately. They also should have many levels of increasingly sophisticated capabilities



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