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nomadic interface strategies may be the exploration of past and developing means for providing cross-disability access to computer and information systems.

Challenges And Research Areas

For a system to be more accessible to and usable by every citizen, it must be (1) perceivable, (2) operable, and (3) understandable.

The following areas of research can help to address these needs:

Data structures, compression, and transport formats that allow the incorporation of alternate modalities or modality-independent data (e.g., text embedded in sound files or graphic files);

Techniques and architectures for partial serving of information, (such as the ability to fetch only the visual, the auditory, the text, or any combination of these tracks from a multimedia file or to fetch one part of a file from one location and another part from a second location (e.g., fetching a movie from one location and the captions from another);

Modality substitution strategies (e.g., techniques for restructuring data so that ear-hand coordination can be substituted for eye-hand coordination);

Natural language interfaces (e.g., the ability to have information presented conversationally and to control products with conversation, whether via speech or ''typed" text);

Alternate, substitute, and remote interface communication protocols (e.g., robust communication protocols that allow sensory- and presentation-independent alternate interfaces to be connected to and used with devices having less flexible interfaces);

Voice-tolerant speech recognition (ability to deal with disarthric and deaf speech);

Dynamic tactile displays (two- and three-dimensional tactile and force feedback 3D);

Better random access to information/functions (instead of tree walking); and

Speed-List (e.g., EZ Access) equivalent access to structured VR environments.

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