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transportable software, rather than being rigid constraints on
the equipment. Networks, as well as applications, can be customized
with transportable software, and programmable networks are a
significant near-future research topic.
18. How and when these developments take place depends in part
on relevant public policy parameters (e.g., the evolution of
19. A document-centered approach represents a midpoint, in which
people could use various applications, but would still have to
access whole documents rather than data from within documents.
20. At the workshop, Robert Kraut, of Carnegie Mellon
University, noted that because information is not a passive,
inactive thing, it can have different values for consumers and
producers. For example, a babysitter who wants to advertise to
parents in the neighborhood probably values that information more
than the parent who feels bombarded with advertisements from many
22. Knoblock refers to information in the Web, but the
observation applies more generally to all forms of information in