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transportable software, rather than being rigid constraints on the equipment. Networks, as well as applications, can be customized with transportable software, and programmable networks are a significant near-future research topic.

18. How and when these developments take place depends in part on relevant public policy parameters (e.g., the evolution of cryptography policy).

19. A document-centered approach represents a midpoint, in which people could use various applications, but would still have to access whole documents rather than data from within documents.

20. At the workshop, Robert Kraut, of Carnegie Mellon University, noted that because information is not a passive, inactive thing, it can have different values for consumers and producers. For example, a babysitter who wants to advertise to parents in the neighborhood probably values that information more than the parent who feels bombarded with advertisements from many sources.

21. See∼gravano/standards.

22. Knoblock refers to information in the Web, but the observation applies more generally to all forms of information in the NII.

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