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More Than Screen Deep Toward Every-Citizen Interfaces to the Nation's Information Infrastructure Toward an Every-Citizen Interface to the Nation's Information Infrastructure Steering Committee Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997
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Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IRI-9529473. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data More than screen deep: toward every-citizen interfaces to the nation's information infrastructure / Toward an Every-Citizen Interface to the Nation's Information Infrastructure Steering Committee, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council. p. cm. Summary report from a workshop held in August 1996. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-06357-4 (pbk.: acid-free paper)1. User interfaces (Computer systems)Congresses. 2. Human-computer interactionCongresses. 3. Information superhighwayUnited StatesCongresses. I. National Research Council (U.S.).Toward an Every-Citizen Interface to the Nation's Information Infrastructure Steering Committee.QA76.9.U83M67 1997303.48'3-dc21 97-21211 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800)624-6242 or (202)334-3313(in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Page iii Toward An Every-Citizen Interface To The Nation's Information Infrastructure Steering Committee ALAN W. BIERMANN, Duke University, Chair TORA BIKSON, RAND Corporation THOMAS DEFANTI, University of Illinois at Chicago GERHARD FISCHER, University of Colorado BARBARA J. GROSZ, Harvard University THOMAS LANDAUER, University of Colorado JOHN MAKHOUL, BBN Corporation BRUCE TOGNAZZINI, Healtheon Corporation GREGG VANDERHEIDEN, University of Wisconsin STEPHEN WEINSTEIN, NEC America Inc. Staff MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Director JOHN M. GODFREY, Research Associate (until January 31, 1997) GAIL E. PRITCHARD, Project Assistant (until December 13, 1996) SYNOD BOYD, Project Assistant (from May 21, 1997)
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Page iv Computer Science And Telecommunications Board DAVID D. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair FRANCES E. ALLEN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center JEFF DOZIER, University of California at Santa Barbara SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California at Berkeley JAMES GRAY, Microsoft Corporation BARBARA J. GROSZ, Harvard University PATRICK HANRAHAN, Stanford University JUDITH HEMPEL, University of California at San Francisco DEBORAH A. JOSEPH, University of Wisconsin BUTLER W. LAMPSON, Microsoft Corporation EDWARD D. LAZOWSKA, University of Washington BARBARA H. LISKOV, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN MAJOR, Qualcomm Inc. ROBERT L. MARTIN, AT&T Network Systems DAVID G. MESSERSCHMITT, University of California at Berkeley CHARLES L. SEITZ, Myricom Inc. DONALD SIMBORG, KnowMed Systems Inc. LESLIE L. VADASZ, Intel Corporation MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Director HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Staff Officer JERRY R. SHEEHAN, Staff Officer JULIE LEE, Administrative Assistant SYNOD BOYD, Project Assistant LISA L. SHUM, Project Assistant
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Page v Commission On Physical Sciences, Mathematics, And Applications ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, MITRE Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director Page vi The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-per- petuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engi- neering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sci- ences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organiza- tion of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The Na- tional Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appro- priate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Acad- emy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the princi- pal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the govern- ment, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Page vii Preface The spread of information systems and, in particular, information infrastructure throughout the economy and social fabric raises questions about the technology's ease of use by different people, from those with limited technical know-how to those with various disabilities to the so-called power users who push for higher performance on many dimensions. In response to a request from the National Science Foundation, the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) of the National Research Council convened a steering committee to evaluate and suggest fruitful directions for progress in user interfaces to computing and communications systems. The charge to the steering committee is best presented by quoting from the project prospectus, which called for a workshop to "determine the state-of-the-art of research in CS [computer science] and other disciplines, identify the questions most important to investigate next ..., identify what is known from research on the longer-term problems that will aid in near-term human-computer communications design, and identify important long-term research issues." The steering committee met in March 1996 to plan a two-day workshop that was held in August 1996 (the agenda and participants are listed in Appendix A) and then met again in September 1996 to plan the structure and format of this summary report. It relied primarily on electronic mail for its subsequent interactions, including electronic mail with the larger set of workshop participants. The workshop participants, like the steering committee, included experts from multiple disciplines-computing and communications software
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Page viii and hardware, psychology, sociology, human factors, design, and economics-and experts experienced with applications in specific domains (e.g., health and education) and with the needs and experiences of a wide range of subpopulations (e.g., people with physical disabilities; those with low-income and/or limited education). Whether from a computer science, social science, or application-domain perspective, all had experience working with a variety of computing and communications system users, and all were asked to draw on their practical experience. It was anticipated that viewing earlier, more technically focused treatments of user interfaces through the lens of a familiar life domain would reveal neglected issues, unidentified challenges, unexpected convergences, or new directions for research or action. The participants pooled their skills to make suggestions concerning how to build interfaces that will enable the broadest-possible spectrum of citizenry to interact easily and effectively with the nation's information infrastructure to obtain as many services as is reasonable. The workshop demonstrated the value of assembling a very diverse group of experts embodying many complementary perspectives; it also demonstrated how differently people in different disciplines-or people with different subspecialties within a given discipline-perceive, analyze, and discuss the experiences and needs of users of computing and communications systems. That recognition implies that the workshop should be seen as part of a process of interdisciplinary convening and exchange that should continue. That process may require special effort and encouragement through activities like the one responsible for this report. The role of the steering committee was not only to organize the workshop but also to sift through the many inputs to distill key themes, ideas, and recommendations. The results compose Part I of the present report, which is a synthesis and distillation primarily of workshop-related inputs and which focuses on research opportunities. Its contribution lies in its integration of a very diverse set of perspectives to illuminate directions for research, with emphasis on directions that blend multiple disciplines. Part I does not purport to be a comprehensive treatise on either user interfaces or the entire set of problems inherent in the challenge of broadening public access to the national information infrastructure (NII), nor does it focus on the important subset of problems associated with NII applications in support of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. For those seeking more detail and a mapping of ideas to sources, position papers contributed by workshop participants (several containing bibliographies) are included in Part II. Additional position papers can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www2.nas.edu/CSTBWEB). The steering committee is grateful to the many people who contributed to its deliberations and to this report. The workshop participants
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Page ix generated a lively set of discussions and commented on early drafts derived from panel discussions. The steering committee is particularly grateful to those who also contributed position statements (see Part II), brief outlines of the state of the art in specific areas (distributed with the workshop program to participants), and comments on a draft of this report. H. Rex Hartson (Virginia Polytechnic Institute), who was unable to attend the workshop, generously supplied a special overview of the user interface landscape, which is the lead segment of Part II. Terry Winograd (Stanford University), Ben Shneiderman (University of Maryland), and Nathan Shedroff (vivid studios), who were also unable to attend, provided position papers. Several workshop participants and a few individuals with no formal participation in the project provided extraordinary inputs to this report. Austin Henderson (Apple Computer) made significant contributions to the committee's thinking about collaboration and information dimensions. Johanna Moore (University of Pittsburgh) assisted in the revision of the discussion on agent technology by collecting input from other participants and integrating it with her own suggestions. Candace Sidner (Lotus Development Corporation) and C. Raymond Perrault (SRI International) contributed additional insights, references, and text describing natural language understanding and processing. Black Hannaford (University of Washington) contributed text describing commercial and research trends relating to haptic and tactile interfaces, and David Warner (Syracuse University) provided input on medical applications for such technology. Julia Hirschberg (AT&T Research Laboratories) and Pierre Isabelle (Center for Information Technology Innovation) provided state-of-the-art reviews for text-to-speech synthesis and machine translation, respectively. Jason Leigh (University of Illinois at Chicago) supplied a substantial part of the graphics and virtual reality reference list. CommerceNet (http://www.commerce.net) and Nielsen Media Research (http://www.nielsenmedia.com/commercenet) generously provided results of their Internet Demographics Survey. Michael North (North Communications) and Marc Regberg (Venture Development Corporation) supplied reference materials on kiosks and their uses. David Crocker (Brandenburg Consulting) created an electronic mail discussion list that supported post-workshop exchanges by the workshop participants and the steering committee. The anonymous reviewers of this report provided an invaluable, if sometimes confounding, sanity check on the steering committee's early efforts to synthesize its impressions and conclusions. The range of comments, criticisms, and suggestions was as broad as the other inputs to the project, but collectively they guided the steering committee in tightening and reinforcing its presentation.
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Page x John Godfrey, a CSTB research associate until February 1997, put considerable effort into organizing the workshop and working with the steering committee as it developed this report. Rob Cheng, a graduate student at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology, prepared background research and other materials for the workshop as a summer intern with CSTB. Finally, the committee thanks Gary Strong, of the National Science Foundation, for both making this project possible and providing ongoing encouragement. Alan W. Biermann, Chair Toward an Every-Citizen Interface to the Nation's Information Infrastructure Steering Committee
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Page xi Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 PART I 1 Introduction 9 2 Requirements for Effective Every-Citizen Interfaces 21 3 Input/Output Technologies: Current Status and Research Needs 71 4 Design and Evaluation 121 5 Communication and Collaboration 154 6 Agents and Systems Intelligence 180 7 Conclusions and Recommendations 192 Bibliography 198 PART II BACKGROUND PAPER Trends in Human-Computer Interaction Research and Development H. Rex Hartson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute 221
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Page xii POSITION PAPERS On Interface Specifics An Embedded, Invisible Every-Citizen Interface 243 Mark Weiser, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces for ''Each" Citizen 246 Mark T. Maybury, Mitre Corporation Interfaces for Understanding 252 Nathan Shedroff, vivid studios Interspace and an Every-Citizen Interface to the National Information Infrastructure 260 Terry Winograd, Stanford University Mobile Access to the Nation's Information Infrastructure 265 Daniel P. Siewiorek, Carnegie Mellon University Ordinary Citizens and the National Information Infrastructure 271 Bruce Tognazzini, Healtheon Corporation Spoken-Language Technology 279 Ronald A. Cole, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology Toward an Every-Citizen Interface 284 Steven K. Feiner, Columbia University Nomadicity, Disability Access, and the Every-Citizen Interface 297 Gregg C. Vanderheiden, University of Wisconsin-Madison On Functions Computer-Mediated Collaboration 307 Loren Terveen, AT&T Research Creating Interfaces Founded on Principles of Discourse Communication and Collaboration 315 Candace Sidner, Lotus Development Corporation Digital Maps 322 Lance McKee and Louis Hecht, Open GIS Consortium Inc. Gathering and Integrating Information in the National Information Infrastructure 330 Craig A. Knoblock, University of Southern California
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Page xiii Integrating Audiences and Users 334 John Richards, Turner Le@rning Inc. Intelligent Agents for Information 341 Katia P. Sycara, Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Information Agents 345 Johanna D. Moore, University of Pittsburgh Resource Discovery and Resource Delivery 354 Kent Wittenburg, Bellcore Search and Publishing 359 Robert A. Virzi, GTE Laboratories Incorporated Security 363 Stephen Kent, BBN Corporation Research to Support Widespread Access to Digital Libraries and Government Information and Services 372 Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland On Application Areas Community Computing Projects 375 Aki Helen Namioka, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility Lifelong Learning 382 Gerhard Fischer, University of Colorado, Boulder Supporting Learning in Communities of Practice 389 Charles Cleary, Northwestern University On Selected Population Groups Extending Knowledge Access to Underserved Citizens 395 Wallace Feurzeig, BBN Systems and Technologies Electronic Access to Services for Low-Income Populations 403 Adam Porter, University of Maryland Access for People with Disabilities 407 Larry Goldberg, WGBH Educational Foundation
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Page xiv On Key Processes Cross-Disciplinary, Social-Context Research 411 John Leslie King, University of California, Irvine Audio Access to the National Information Infrastructure 417 John C. Thomas, NYNEX Science and Technology APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda and Participants 425 B Steering Committee Members' Biographies 429