Index

A

Accessing Federal Data Bases for Contaminated Site Clean-Up Technologies , 85

Accounting profession. See also Environmental auditing

developing consistent standards for tabulating remediation liabilities , 67-68

training certified environmental accountants, 5

Acrimony, reducing, 9

Advanced Applied Technology Demonstration Facility (AATDF) project , 227, 234, 236

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 184

Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), 234

Air sparing, 37-38, 92, 96, 108, 117, 151, 213, 226

Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup, 1

Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) Network , 272

American Academy of Environmental Engineers, 16, 85, 258, 269

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 68

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 19-20, 48

Aqueous-phase transport, 27

Aquifers

characterizing, 221

complexity of, 88

nonuniformity of, 24

Aroclors. See Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

Arsenic, 51

Artificial wetlands. See Wetlands, constructed

Asphalt batching, 90

B

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), 21

Biodegradation, 102-103

Biological reaction processes, 89, 91-92, 98-99, 108-112, 125-128, 132-133

testing, 210-212, 214-215

Biopiles, 91

Bioremediation, 36-38, 43, 60, 65-66, 81, 83-84, 149-150, 214-215.

See also Engineered in situ bioremediation

evolution of, 83, 87

sulfate-reducing, 119

testing, 214-215

Bioremediation in the Field Search System (BFSS), 273

Bioslurry reactors, 91, 125-128

Biosparging, 38, 91

Biostabilization, 90-91, 134-135



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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization Index A Accessing Federal Data Bases for Contaminated Site Clean-Up Technologies , 85 Accounting profession. See also Environmental auditing developing consistent standards for tabulating remediation liabilities , 67-68 training certified environmental accountants, 5 Acrimony, reducing, 9 Advanced Applied Technology Demonstration Facility (AATDF) project , 227, 234, 236 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 184 Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), 234 Air sparing, 37-38, 92, 96, 108, 117, 151, 213, 226 Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup, 1 Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) Network , 272 American Academy of Environmental Engineers, 16, 85, 258, 269 American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 68 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 19-20, 48 Aqueous-phase transport, 27 Aquifers characterizing, 221 complexity of, 88 nonuniformity of, 24 Aroclors. See Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Arsenic, 51 Artificial wetlands. See Wetlands, constructed Asphalt batching, 90 B Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), 21 Biodegradation, 102-103 Biological reaction processes, 89, 91-92, 98-99, 108-112, 125-128, 132-133 testing, 210-212, 214-215 Biopiles, 91 Bioremediation, 36-38, 43, 60, 65-66, 81, 83-84, 149-150, 214-215. See also Engineered in situ bioremediation evolution of, 83, 87 sulfate-reducing, 119 testing, 214-215 Bioremediation in the Field Search System (BFSS), 273 Bioslurry reactors, 91, 125-128 Biosparging, 38, 91 Biostabilization, 90-91, 134-135

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization Bioventing, 81, 91, 109-111, 209 evolution of, 110-111 Brownfield sites, 30-31, 62-63, 196-197 C California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) Technology Certification Program, 241, 243 Case Study Data System, 273 Center for Environmental Excellence, 209 Chemical reaction processes, 89, 92, 98-99, 132 neutralization, 29, 36 oxidation, 92, 117 testing, 210-212 Chlorinated solvents, 21, 65-66, 83, 92, 100-101, 113-120, 214 relative ease of cleanup, 87-88 relative solubilities of, 115 research needed, 120 Citizens Opposed to Polluting the Environment, 33 Clay, lenses of, 24 CleanUp Information Bulletin Board System (CLU-IN), 273 Clients. See Site owners Coal tar. See Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Complexation reaction, 27 Composting, 91, 150 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 28, 42, 172. See also Superfund program Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS), 273 Computer simulation models, 206 Congress, action needed by authorizing long-term amortization of remediation liabilities, 5, 69, 76 evaluating issue of national cleanup standards, 6, 77 reviewing effectiveness of state cleanup standards, 71 Superfund reform, 47-48 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 4, 18, 47, 49 Consensus building, 8 Consortia. See Partnerships in technology development Consultants. See Remediation technology consultants Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW™), 36 Containment processes, 89-91, 98-99, 130-131 research needed, 155-156 testing, 210-211 Contaminants. See also Ground water contaminants; Soil contaminants; and specific contaminants classes of compounds, 13-14 diffusion into micropores, 28, 32-33 entrapment into immobile zones, 28 exposure pathways, 22-24, 185-186 hydrophobic, 28, 32, 155-156 ion exchange bonding of, 28 measuring levels of exposure to, 9 mixtures of, 155-156 off site migration of, 2, 20 plume formations from, 7, 24-25, 90-91, 112, 116 recalcitrant, 2, 87-88 relative treatability of, 13, 237-238 solvent- and surfactant-based, 156 sorption to subsurface materials, 28, 33, 123 sources of, 21-29, 97, 113, 120-121, 129-130, 134-136, 144-146, 219 -220 unreactive or immobile, 155 Contaminated sites. See Hazardous waste sites Conventional remediation technologies. See also specific technologies Glossary of Remediation Technologies, 90-95 high costs of, 33-34 limitations of, 1-2, 7, 17-18, 30, 32-34 Coprecipitation, 90, 138 Cosolvent flushing, 86, 92-93, 218-220 Cost of Remedial Action Model (CORA), 274 Costs, comparing, 1, 8, 15-17, 252-270 cost effectiveness presently unrewarded, 4 estimates that include discount rates and tax benefits needed, 17, 262-267, 270 estimates that include one-time start-up costs needed, 17, 253, 268 -269 fixed-price remediation contracts needed, 5-6, 69, 76 pattern of stalling versus acting, 47 sharing of data on performance and costs needed, 8, 253, 265, 267-269 standardized estimating systems needed, 8, 192-193, 252-253, 259-265

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization standardized system of metrics needed, 253, 258-259, 268-269 "template sites" cost comparison system needed, 16, 254-258, 269 typical cost categories used, 261-262, 269-270 Cyanide oxidation, 36 D Data bases presently available, 84-85, 272-277 Dechlorination, 36, 151 Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange (DENIX), 274 Dioxin, 52 Displacement, 105 Dissolution, 102-103 Dissolved-phase solvents, 115-116 "DOIT" committee. See Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Technologies Down time, likelihood of, 190 Dual-phase extraction, 37-38, 87, 93, 107-108, 117 E Electrokinetics, 93, 141 Electron acceptors, 91-92 Electroosmosis, 93, 231 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, 74 Emulsification, 105 Engineered in situ bioremediation, 91, 119 Engineering friendliness, 189-191 Enhanced solubilization, 105 Enhanced sorption, 90-91, 139 Environmental auditing, 5, 68, 76 Environmental companies. See Remediation technology providers Environmental Leadership Program. See Naval Environmental Leadership Program Environmental Management Science Program, 59 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 243-246 collects data on innovative technologies, 2, 81 developing a standard "template sites" cost comparison system, 16 See also Costs, comparing ensuring consistency in remediation technology selection process, 6, 70-71, 76-77, 198 establishing a coordinated national testing program, 14, 248 establishing a national registry of contaminated sites, 6, 77 evaluating issue of national cleanup standards, 6, 71, 77 improving Superfund and RCRA enforcement, 5, 76 making comprehensive data bases available, 8, 73-74, 154, 267, 270 notifies SEC about compliance with environmental laws, 67 Online Library System (OLS), 274 reducing litigation by promptly identifying potentially responsible parties, 72 requiring early public involvement, 10, 197-198 reviewing effectiveness of state cleanup standards, 71, 76 Environmental regulators, See Regulatory authorities Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), 234 Environmental Technologies Remedial Actions Data Exchange (EnviroTRADE) , 274 Environmental Technology Information System (TIS), 274 Equilibrium point, 109 Explosives, 100-101 Extraction processes, 92-96, 98-99 F Facilitated transport, 27 Federal Accounting Standards Board, 68 Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Technologies, 39 Federal Facilities Compliance Act, 29 Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 11, 85, 193 guidelines for data collection at federal facilities, 202, 241-242, 260 work-breakdown structure (WBS) for standardized cost reporting, 16 , 260, 262, 269-270 Fenton's reagent, 92, 117, 150 Fixed-price remediation contracts. See Costs, comparing

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization Forgiveness, 189-190 Fracturing technology, 93 Full-cost environmental accounting. See Environmental auditing Fungal treatment, 91 Future land use, limits on, 196-197 G Geological formations. See Verification of innovative remediation technology performance Global Network for Environmental Technology (GNET), 275 Government agencies initiating periodic peer review of technologies, 8, 154-155 sharing of data on performance and costs needed, 8, 154 wide variety of, with differing priorities, 45 Ground water contaminants, 80-81 fewer treatment technologies available than for soil, 7 flow rates of, 25-26 innovative technologies in use, 43-44 retention mechanisms of, 28 sources of, listed, 22 transformation mechanisms of, 29 transport mechanisms of, 27, 30 Ground Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center (GWRTAC), 19 , 85, 267, 275 Grout walls, 90 H Hazardous Waste Collection Data Base, 273 Hazardous waste sites full disclosure concerning, 73-74 no guidelines for data collection at, 202 numbers of, 18, 31 owners of See Site owners Hazardous Waste Superfund Collection Data Base, 275 Hazard Ranking System (HRS), 176 Health risks. See Human health risks; Wildlife health risks Herbicides, carrier solvents of, 113 "Hockey-stick" plot effect, 126-127 Hot air injection, 36 Human health risks, 183-189, 204-205. See also Risk-based corrective action (RBCA) standards Hydration, 90, 92 Hydrogen peroxide, 150 I Implementation, ease of, 190 Incineration approaches, 33, 36-37, 52, 92, 148 Industry groups, 2. See also individual groups Injection approaches, 230. See also Hot air injection Innovative remediation technologies, 80-166. See also Testing remediation technologies; Transferring remediation technologies; and specific technologies assessing commercial potential of, 191-194 barriers to implementation, 38-39, 46-55 case histories of, 44, 58, 60, 64-65, 118, 209, 211, 214-219, 222-223, 226, 229 constant evolution of, 81-82 cost targets to beat needed, 5, 69 definitions, 81-97 Glossary of Remediation Technologies, 90-95 lacking information about, 7-8, 82, 84-86 more a legal product than a technological one, 53 present utilization of, 34-38 research needed, 88, 155-157 Innovative remediation technology consultants. See Remediation technology consultants Innovative remediation technology providers. See Remediation technology providers Innovative technology users. See Site owners Innovative Treatment Technologies: Annual Status Report,81 Inorganic contaminants, 100-101, 134-144. See also Metal contaminants; Radioactive contaminants relative mobility of, 137 research needed, 144 In situ versus ex situ approaches, 36-38, 83 precipitation/coprecipitation, 90 soil mixing, 90, 93 Insurance companies, 174 Intellectual property restrictions, 193

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization International Standards Organization (ISO) ISO 14001, 69 standards for environmental management systems, 5, 68-69, 76 Internet listings needed comprehensive data bases of remediation technology, 6, 154, 267 national registry of contaminated sites, 6 Interstate Regulatory Cooperation Project for Environmental Technologies , 242 Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC) Working Group , 242 Intrinsic bioremediation, 91, 109 research needed, 156 Intrinsic remediation (natural attenuation), 37-38 Investors, 174. See also Venture capital sources predictions of high returns not borne out, 42 presently unable to project returns, 4 K Kerr Laboratory. See Robert S. Kerr Environmental Laboratory Soil Transport and Fate Data Base L Laboratory tests. See Testing remediation technologies, determining level of testing required Land farming, 37, 91, 150 Landfilling, 35, 37 Leaking underground storage tanks, 97 cleaning up, 36-38 regulations, 29-31 Legislative reform needed, dealing with likelihood of relaxing cleanup regulations , 3-4. See also Congress, action needed by Lenders, reluctant. See Property values depressed Level of testing. See Testing remediation technologies, determining level of testing required Lime addition, 90 Long-term liability, difficult to calculate, 2 M Maintenance requirements, 190 Manufacturers. See Remediation technology providers Markets for innovative remediation technologies, 42-79 few incentives offered at present, 4, 15-16 inherently fragmented, 45 making data about remediation market available, 65, 77 stimulating by harnessing market forces, 3-7, 20, 42-43, 62-75 Massachusetts program for licensing site professionals, 6, 72-73, 77, 241 Massachusetts Strategic Envirotechnology Partnership (STEP), 243 Materials handling, research needed, 156 Metal contaminants, 21, 27, 136-141 nonvolatile, 90 precipitation of, 28-29 research needed, 156-157 sequestering See Precipitation Methanotrophic bacteria, 116 Microbial degradation, 29, 36, 90, 102, 122-123, 147-148 Mixed-region vapor stripping (MRVS), 216-21 Mobilization processes, 92-96, 98-99 Modeling, 228 N NAPL recovery, 93, 106, 218-220. See also Nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) transport; Thermally enhanced NAPL recovery NAPL source zone mapping, 229 National Advisory Council on Environmental Policy and Technology, 38 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18 National Center for Integrated Bioremediation Research and Development (NCIBRD), 234 National Commission on Superfund, 39 National Environmental Technology Test Sites (NETTS), 234

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization National Priorities List (NPL) of sites. See Superfund program National Research Council (NRC), 1, 18, 212 National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 243 Naval Environmental Leadership Program (NELP), 227, 235 Nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) transport, 22, 24, 27, 92-96 complex flow paths, 120 direct mobilization, 125 DNAPLs, 27, 86, 93-94, 114, 155 entrapment, 28 LNAPLs, 27, 93-94 O Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 18 Olefins, 92 Open detonation, 36 Organic biofilters, 92 Ozone, 92, 117, 150 P Partnerships in technology development, 15, 245-246, 249 Passive-reactive barriers, 90, 92, 138, 185. See also Zero-valent iron barriers testing, 222-223 Passive treatment walls, 37, 65, 86 Peer review panels, 5-6, 8, 154-155 Perchloroethylene (PCE), 21, 113 migration rate of, 25, 28, 30 Permeable treatment walls. See Passive-reactive barriers; Zero-valent iron barriers Peroxide combinations, 92 Pesticides, 51, 100-101, 144-153 carrier solvents of, 113 classes and uses table, 145 Petroleum hydrocarbons, 19-21, 36, 81-84, 97, 100-113 relative profitability of cleanup, 45, 60 relative treatability of, 7, 54, 87-88, 103 research needed, 112 Pharmaceutical industry, analogy to, 56-57, 201 pH-controlled solid phase formation, 90, 136, 149 Physical separation, 36 Phytoremediation, 92, 143, 157 Pilot tests. See Testing remediation technologies, determining level of testing required Plasma high temperature metals recovery, 36 Point of maximum effect, 10, 198 Political pressure for reform, 47-48 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 21, 52, 86, 100-101, 129-135 cost of cleaning up, 33-34 research needed, 133 verifying stabilization of, 211, 225 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 21, 25, 53, 100-101, 120-129 relative rates of biodegradation, 122 research needed, 128-129 Potassium permanganate, 92, 150 Pozzolonic agents, 90, 131 Precipitation, 90, 138 Predictability under wide-ranging site conditions, 191 Professional organizations, initiating periodic peer review of technologies , 8, 154-155 Profitability, 193 Property values depressed, 2, 20, 30 fear of pre-sale environmental assessments, 63-64 Public involvement, 9-19, 170-172 avoiding community disruption, 194-195 case histories of, 178-180, 182-183 ensuring public safety, 195-196 Public sector environmental remediation, inadequate cost containment , 4 Pump-and-treat systems, 32-34, 37-38, 93-94, 117, 137-138 failures of, 202 R Radioactive contaminants, 21, 27, 31-32, 90, 134-136 Radio frequency heating, 151-152 Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI), 234 Recommendations, 4-17, 75-77, 154-157, 197-198, 247-249, 269-270 Records of Decision Data Base, 276 Redox potential-controlled solid phase formation, 90, 92, 136, 149 Reducing treatment zones, generating, 139 Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 184

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization Regulatory authorities, 2, 172-173. See also Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); State regulatory authorities approval protocols of, 242-243 averse to risk-taking, 153, 173 categorizing sites by treatment difficulty, 12-14, 34 initiating periodic peer review of technologies, 8, 154-155 wide latitude in decisionmaking, 8 Regulatory barriers to innovation, 46-54 approval difficult to obtain, 4, 39 inconsistent enforcement, 3, 54, 65, 70 lack of consistent standards, 4, 53-54, 65, 70-72 likelihood of relaxation by legislative reform, 3-4 limits on customers' freedom to choose and adapt technologies, 46, 72-73 option to arbitrate, 46 surmounting, 196 Remediation Information Management System (RIMS), 275 Remediation technologies. See Conventional remediation technologies; Innovative remediation technologies Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), 16, 19, 245-246, 258, 269 Remediation technology consultants averse to risk-taking, 153 bias towards providing clients with "safe" technologies, 45 providing diverse range of environmental services, 44 sharing of data on performance and costs needed, 8, 154 Remediation technology providers, 173 compiling and releasing cost figures, 15 considering client and client's consultant in sales strategy, 45 considering concerns of all stakeholders, 10, 198 decline in stocks of, 42-44 offering proof their technology works to reduce risks, 11, 46, 198 start-up difficulties, 2-4, 44, 50, 52, 55, 59, 61-62 ReOpt Data Bases, 276 Residual-phase solvents, 114-115 Residuals production, 191 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 2-3, 29-31, 42, 172 cleanups under, 37-38 official corrective action plan required, 47, 175 regulatory structure, 46-54 Resource Conservation and Recovery Information System (RCRIS), 276 Risk-based corrective action (RBCA) standards, 19-20, 48 Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory Treatability Data Base, 272 Robert S. Kerr Environmental Laboratory Soil Transport and Fate Data Base, 272, 276 Robustness, 189 S Saturated zone, 24 Scale of testing. See Testing remediation technologies, determining level of testing required SEC. See U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Secondary emissions, 191 Semiconductor industry, analogy to, 58-59 Semivolatile organic compounds, 100-101 Separation processes, 92-96, 98-99, 117, 151-152 testing, 212-213, 216-220 Sheet pile walls, 90 Site cleanup, barriers to cost uncertainty, 1, 8, 15-17 lengthy implementation process, 3, 49-52 move to limit the number of cleanups, 42 option to engage in litigation to delay, 3-4, 47 slow action by site owners, 4 Site managers of federally owned contaminated sites, 5 flexibility needed to consider alternative technologies, 6 Site owners, 173-174, 202-203 averse to risk-taking, 153 categorizing sites by treatment difficulty, 12-14 conservatism of, 39 in economically distressed areas, 62 hesitant to share information about sites, 54-55

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization as potentially responsible parties (PRPs), 178 reluctant to account for remediation costs to stockholders, 48-49 sharing of data on performance and costs needed, 8, 154 testing at client's site, 217-225 Site workers, 168-169, 174-175 avoiding disruption to, 195 Six-State Partnership for Environmental Technology, 242 Slurry walls, 90 Soil aeration, 36 Soil contaminants, 80-81 innovative technologies in use, 43 more treatment technologies available than for ground water, 7 Soil flushing, 94, 104-105, 124-125, 131-132, 151 research needed, 156 Soil mixing, 131 in situ, 90, 93 Soil Transport and Fate Data Base. See Robert S. Kerr Environmental Laboratory Soil Transport and Fate Data Base Soil vapor extraction (SVE), 35-37, 43, 80, 84, 94, 96, 103-104, 117, 151. See also Thermally enhanced SVE evolution of, 86-87, 110-111, 171, 226 success of, 202, 213 Soil washing, 36-37, 94, 104-105, 124-125, 131-132, 143-144 Solidification processes, 33, 36, 89-91, 98-99, 130 research needed, 156 testing, 210-211 Solvent extraction, 36, 132 Sorption reactions, 27. See also Enhanced sorption Southern States Energy Board, 11, 242 Sparge barriers, 92 Stabilization processes, 89-91, 98-99, 130 research needed, 156 testing, 210-211 Stakeholders, 2-3. See also Insurance companies; Investors; Public; Regulatory authorities; Remediation technology providers; Site owners; Site workers concerns of, 168-169 disagreements among, 9, 179 levels of participation in Superfund process, 181 other interested groups See Congress; Industry groups; Professional organizations roles in site cleanup process, 175-182 State regulatory authorities requiring early public involvement, 10, 197-198 testing policies, 230 Steam extraction, 151 Steam sparging, 94 STEP program. See Massachusetts Strategic Envirotechnology Partnership Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), 46, 232-234 Substitution, 92 Success criteria establishing, 9-10, 167-200 list of, 187-188 technology selection, expediting, 9-10 Superfund Innovative Technologies Evaluation (SITE) program, 11, 46, 192, 225, 227, 235, 241, 243-244 Superfund program, 2-3 cleanups under, 36-38 National Priorities List (NPL) of sites, 4, 30-31, 49, 73, 176 official record of decision (ROD) required, 47, 175 regulatory structure, 46-54 step in the process, 176-177 Superfund Reauthorization Act and Amendments (SARA) of 1986, 243 Surfactant flushing, 86, 94 T TechDirect, 277 Technologies for remediation. See Conventional remediation technologies; Innovative remediation technologies Technology Access Services, 277 Technology Assistance Directory, 272 Technology Certification Program, 241, 243 Technology consultants. See Remediation technology consultants Technology development partnerships. See Partnerships in technology development

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization Technology implementation. See Transferring remediation technologies Technology Innovation and Economics Committee, 38 Technology Innovation Office, 19, 39, 55, 85 Technology providers. See Remediation technology providers Technology testing. See Testing remediation technologies Technology users. See Site owners ''Template sites." See Costs, comparing Testing remediation technologies, 9-15, 39, 74-75, 182-191, 201-251. See also Verification of innovative remediation technology performance categorizing sites by treatment difficulty, 12-14, 34, 230-240, 248 collecting data needed for, 7-8, 202-216, 245-248 details on prior cleanups often proprietary, 8 determining level of testing required, 213, 215-216, 221, 224 Glossary of Remediation Technologies, 90-95 including experimental controls, 12, 14, 208-209, 248 minimizing testing costs, 11 reporting point of maximum effect, 10, 198 reporting system effectiveness in standardized terms, 10 site-specific testing needed for, 239 testing at client's site, 217-225 using standardized testing protocols, 20, 242-243, 248, Test sites, selecting, 216-227, 232-233 testing opportunities at federal facilities needed, 6-7, 65-66, 74 , 77, 225, 227, 232-233 Thermal desorption, 35-37, 43, 58, 86, 90, 94-95, 105-106, 123-124, 131 Thermally enhanced NAPL recovery, 95, 106-107 Thermally enhanced SVE, 95 Thermal reduction, 92, 124 TIS. See Environmental Technology Information System Toxicity, determining, 204 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), 6, 74, 77 Transferring remediation technologies, 227-240 site-specific technical expertise needed for, 46 Treatment fluids, pumping, 7 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 113 Trichloroethylene (TCE), 21, 113 U Underground storage tank (UST) cleanup program. See Leaking underground storage tanks U.S. Department of Agriculture, contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18 U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Air Force use of bioventing, 109, 209 conditionally implementing ISO 14001 standard, 69, 193 contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18, 29, 31 major component of remediation market, 45 using few new technologies, 38 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18, 21, 29, 31, 134-136 funding research on remediation technologies, 142-14359 major component of remediation market, 45 using few new technologies, 38, 81 using "template sites" approach, 256 U.S. Department of the Interior, contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18 U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), 2, 4, 38, 47, 53-54 investigating Massachusetts program for licensing site professionals , 6, 77 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 212 U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) enforcing reporting of environmental liabilities, 5, 66-67, 75-76 present requirements, 67 Users. See Site owners V Vacuum-assisted NAPL recovery, 95 Vadose zone, 24, 91, 228 "Valley of Death" phase of start-up companies, 59, 61 Vapor-phase transport, 27 Vapor stripping, 216-217

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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization Vendor Information System for Innovative Treatment Technologies (VISITT) , 277 Venture capital sources characteristics of industries attracting venture capital, 55-62 little funding of innovative remediation technologies, 3, 49-50 Verification of innovative remediation technology performance, 14-15, 202-216, 240-248 developing protocols for, 243 entering findings in national data base, 15, 249 establishing cause-and-effect relationship, 203, 206-207 specifying range of contaminant types and hydrogeological conditions , 15, 24, 219-223, 249 standardized summary sheet needed, 14-15, 248 Vitrification, 36, 64, 90-91, 131, 142-143 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 86, 90, 92, 94. See also Semivolatile organic compounds Volatilization, 102-103, 147 W Wastewater treatment, 81, 138 Water contamination. See Ground water contaminants Western Governors Association, 11. See also Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC) Working Group Wetlands, constructed, 139-141, 156-157 Wildlife health risks, 186 Work-breakdown structure (WBS). See Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable Z Zero-valent iron barriers, 92, 117-119 testing, 222-223