In this activity, the students experience one mechanism for evolution through a simulation that models the principles of natural selection and helps answer the question: How might biological change have occurred and been reinforced over time? The activity is designed for grades 9 through 12 and requires three class periods. This activity is adapted with permission from BSCS Biology: A Human Approach.7
This activity provides all students opportunities to develop understandings of biological evolution as described in the National Science Education Standards. Specifically, it conveys the concepts that:
Species evolve over time. Evolution is the consequence of the interaction of (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring in a particular environment. Item 4 is the primary emphasis of this activity. Teachers can introduce the other factors as appropriate.
Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record of ancient life forms, as well as for the striking molecular similarities observed among the diverse species of living organisms.
Some living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of almost infinite size, but environments and resources are finite. The fundamental tension has profound effects on the interactions among organisms.
Many students have difficulty with the fundamental concepts of evolution. For example, some students express misconceptions about natural selection because they do not understand the relationship between variations within a population and the potential effect of those variations as the population continues to grow in numbers in an environment with limited resources. This is a dynamic understanding that derives from the four ideas presented in the learning outcomes for this activity.
This activity emphasizes natural selection. In particular, it presents students with the predatorprey relationship as one example of how natural selection operates in nature.
Students should understand that the process of evolution has two steps, referred to as genetic variation and natural selection. The first step is the development of genetic variation through changes such as genetic recombination, gene flow, and mutations. The second step, and the point of this activity, is selection. Differential survival and reproduction of organisms is due to a variety of environmental factors such as predator-prey relationships, resource shortages, and change of habitat. In any generation only a small percentage of organisms survives. Survival depends on an organism's genetic constitution that will, given circumstances such as limited resources, give a greater probability of survival and reproduction.8
8 petri dish halves
8 36- x 44-in. pieces of fabric, 4 each of 2 different patterns
8 sheets of graph paper
8 zip-type plastic sandwich bags containing 120 paper dots, 20 each of 6 colors (labeled "Beginning Population")
8 sets of colored pencils with colors similar to the paper dot colors
8 zip-type plastic sandwich bags of spare paper dots in all colors
watch or clock with a second hand
computer with spreadsheet software program (optional)
24 forceps (optional)