Index

Accommodations

in assessments, 33, 34, 61, 65, 69, 85, 106, 108, 109, 112, 146, 152-153, 159, 160, 170-182, 187, 191, 204, 256, 257, 274-275

for cognitive disabilities, 2, 65, 108, 110-111

content, 172 n.11

costs, 190

credentialing and, 123

defined, 153, 171-172, 249

designing and evaluating, 85, 177-179, 257

determinants of need for, 111

disability status and, 146, 177-178

IEP documentation of, 59, 61, 159-161

for learning disabilities, 61, 106, 274-275

least restrictive environment, 59

legal basis for, 7, 24-25, 26, 50, 61, 170, 187, 189

logic of, 173, 176-177, 260-261

number of students needing, 111

and predictive validity, 180

presentation changes, 29 n.8, 106, 159

purpose of, 7, 176

recommendations, 204

research evidence about, 179-182

response-mode changes, 29 n.8, 159

and score comparability, 181-182

severity of disability and, 107, 110-111, 153

state policies, 28-29, 159-160

timing changes, 159, 177, 180, 181, 183

validity of, 165-173, 176-182, 190-192, 193

Accountability

assessment used for, 2, 28, 40, 151, 154-157, 183-184

comparison group, 154

defined, 249

enforcement of, 156

fiscal, 49

forms, 151

in general education, 151-152

IEPs and, 54, 56, 147-148, 150, 151-152

measures, 61

overview, 154-155

participation of students with disabilities in, 6-7, 54, 60-61, 71 , 158-161, 192, 254-255

recommendations, 7, 9-10, 197, 200-201, 202-203

reporting of scores and, 185

school, 28, 155

in special education, 49, 151-152, 255

in standards-based reform, 1-2, 3, 27, 28, 65

state variations in, 27, 28, 155

student, 28, 168

teacher, 155

time frame for information, 154-155

units of, 28, 154, 168, 183-184

and validity of assessment inferences, 167

Achievement and outcomes of students.

See also Performance of students with disabilities

academic credits vs vocational credits, 135



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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Index Accommodations in assessments, 33, 34, 61, 65, 69, 85, 106, 108, 109, 112, 146, 152-153, 159, 160, 170-182, 187, 191, 204, 256, 257, 274-275 for cognitive disabilities, 2, 65, 108, 110-111 content, 172 n.11 costs, 190 credentialing and, 123 defined, 153, 171-172, 249 designing and evaluating, 85, 177-179, 257 determinants of need for, 111 disability status and, 146, 177-178 IEP documentation of, 59, 61, 159-161 for learning disabilities, 61, 106, 274-275 least restrictive environment, 59 legal basis for, 7, 24-25, 26, 50, 61, 170, 187, 189 logic of, 173, 176-177, 260-261 number of students needing, 111 and predictive validity, 180 presentation changes, 29 n.8, 106, 159 purpose of, 7, 176 recommendations, 204 research evidence about, 179-182 response-mode changes, 29 n.8, 159 and score comparability, 181-182 severity of disability and, 107, 110-111, 153 state policies, 28-29, 159-160 timing changes, 159, 177, 180, 181, 183 validity of, 165-173, 176-182, 190-192, 193 Accountability assessment used for, 2, 28, 40, 151, 154-157, 183-184 comparison group, 154 defined, 249 enforcement of, 156 fiscal, 49 forms, 151 in general education, 151-152 IEPs and, 54, 56, 147-148, 150, 151-152 measures, 61 overview, 154-155 participation of students with disabilities in, 6-7, 54, 60-61, 71 , 158-161, 192, 254-255 recommendations, 7, 9-10, 197, 200-201, 202-203 reporting of scores and, 185 school, 28, 155 in special education, 49, 151-152, 255 in standards-based reform, 1-2, 3, 27, 28, 65 state variations in, 27, 28, 155 student, 28, 168 teacher, 155 time frame for information, 154-155 units of, 28, 154, 168, 183-184 and validity of assessment inferences, 167 Achievement and outcomes of students. See also Performance of students with disabilities academic credits vs vocational credits, 135

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform ''aging out" of school, 94 cohort, point-estimate models, 266-273 content coverage and, 30, 136, 149 curriculum and, 30, 118-121, 132, 136 as dimension of disability, 77-78 disability status and, 4, 95, 97, 99, 101, 102, 133, 264-265, 268-273, 274, 275 educational expectations of parents and, 101-102, 267 elementary school data, 97, 262-275 employment, 4, 54, 94, 98-99, 101 family attitudes/behavior and, 100, 101, 102, 111, 267, 268-272, 273, 274 gender differences, 264, 265, 267, 274 high school graduation, 4, 54, 94, 95-96 independent living, 101 intelligence and, 78-79 learning, 32 model of outcomes, 119 multivariate estimates of, 266-275 parental involvement and, 6, 100-102, 111, 268-272, 274 point estimates of, 263-265 post-school outcomes, 4, 13, 98-99, 118-121, 252 postsecondary education, 4, 54, 98-99, 101, 118-121 prior, 98, 102, 268-272, 273, 275 Prospects study, 97, 262-275 race/ethnicity and, 264, 265, 267, 268-272, 274 rates of growth, 97 research needs, 97-98, 112 socioeconomic status and, 95, 100, 264, 266-267, 268-272 of special education and, 96-98 trends, 263-265 value-added models, 273-275 Adaptive behavior, 78, 79, 107 Advocacy, parental role, 6, 62-63, 102-105, 147, 204-205 African Americans, 88-89, 90, 104, 264, 265, 267, 268-272, 274 Alabama, 76 Alaska, 138 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 31, 41 n.16, 117 American Federation of Teachers, 27 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 50-51, 52, 68, 174, 187, 189 , 249 Appropriate education balancing of benefits approach, 58-59 constitutionally adequate public education system, 51 content standards and, 6, 140-141, 145-147, 150 defined, 61, 140, 195-196, 250 educational benefit criteria, 58 entitlement to, 56-59 equality of opportunity approach, 58 IDEA provisions, 3, 46, 58, 61, 92, 107, 140 IEP and, 140 least restrictive environment, 58, 59, 60, 92 parental role, 62-63 related services, 58 requirements for, 140-141 Rowley standard, 57-59, 62, 69, 140 in standards-based system, 59, 65, 140 state laws, 51-52 Arizona Student Assessment Program, 42 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, 88-89, 264, 265, 267, 268-272, 274 Assessment. See also Reporting of assessment results; Tests accommodations in, 33, 34, 61, 65, 69, 85, 106, 108, 109, 112, 152 -153, 159-160, 170-182, 183, 187, 191, 192-193, 257, 274-275 for accountability, 2, 28, 40, 151, 154-157 administration frequency, 156-157 alternate, 3, 172-173, 174-175, 187, 189, 249 comparability of performance, 33, 168-169, 172, 257 computer-based, 183 consequences attached to, 155, 157, 167, 184, 258 construct-disability relationship, 170-171 content standards linked with, 3, 25-26, 28, 45, 155 context-dependence of, 169-170 costs, 40, 189-190 design, 7-8, 33, 40, 65, 152, 154, 155, 161-162, 182-183 differential item functioning, 181 exemption/exclusion from, 2, 6, 96, 152-153, 191-192, 256, 258 fairness of, 7, 167-168, 184-189 formats/approaches, 3, 27-28, 32, 37, 39-40, 64, 80, 157, 161 item response theory, 182-183 large-scale, 27-28, 37, 70, 152, 155, 161-190, 251 legal frameworks for, 25-26, 162, 174, 186-189, 193 out-of-level testing, 172 participation of students with disabilities in, 24-25, 34, 54, 71, 153, 158-190, 192-193, 254-255, 267, 272 performance assessment, 32, 161-165

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform politics of, 39 n.14 portfolio system, 32, 34, 163, 172-173, 174, 175 prior achievement controlled for, 98, 268-272, 273, 275 problems associated with, 32, 39 n.14, 177-179, 266, 268-272 purposes, 155-156, 187 recommendations, 197-204, 205, 210 and referrals to special education, 159 resource implications, 189-190 sampling error, 163-164, 167 scoring, 28, 34, 39, 163, 168, 275 for special education eligibility, 70-71, 77-78, 154, 167, 178 in standards-based reform, 152, 155-157, 160-161 state guidelines, 27-28, 155, 158 student-by-task interactions, 164 task difficulty, 164-165 task variance, 164 technology and, 183, 255 uses, 27, 32, 152, 155, 156, 166-167, 187 Autism, 71, 72, 87, 93 Behavior. See Adaptive behavior; specific behaviors Belgium, 30 Business Roundtable, 31, 45 California education reforms, 41, 143, 165 Learning Assessment System, 37-38, 39 n.14, 190 standards development, 38, 39 Classification of disabilities. See also Identification of students with disabilities; specific categories and accommodation design, 177-178 and assessments, 178 and comparability of studies, 92, 178 defining disability, 71-82 dimension, 77-80 eligibility policy, 54-56, 64, 82-86 federal regulatory definitions, 71-75 imprecision of categories, 83-86, 171, 177-178, 255 and placement decisions, 90-94, 178-179 severity, 4, 55, 75-77, 110-111 social stigma of labeling, 34, 82-83, 184-185, 254 state variation in policies, 4, 76, 83-84, 110 taxonomy changes, 4, 85-86, 178 and treatment decisions, 84, 85 variability in rates, 75 Cognitive disabilities accommodations, 2, 65, 108, 110-111 content standards, 137, 146 definition, 79 n.3, 250 instruction strategies, 125-129 mild, 4, 84, 108, 111 severe, 25, 110-111, 137, 169 Colorado, 115, 139, 144, 155 Communication skills and language development cognitive disabilities, 126, 129 as dimension of disability, 79-80 Connecticut, 29 n.8, 76 Constructivism, 117-118, 126-128, 129, 149-150, 250 Content standards. See also Curriculum abstract applications, 116-117 and achievement/outcomes, 136 addressing students with disabilities in, 25, 137-138 alternate, 147-148, 201-202 and appropriate education, 5, 140-141, 145-147, 150 assessments linked with, 25-26, 28, 45 benefits of, 138-137 controversies, 37-38 criteria, 36-37 decision-making process, 6, 145-147, 150 defined, 3, 22, 250 definitional process, 36-39 educational implications, 140-149 IASA, 25-26 and IEP process, 138, 147-148 implementation in individual schools and classrooms, 40-44 instructional implications, 5, 40-44, 114, 115-116, 117-118, 146, 149-150 and learning, 138-139 legal implications, 140-150 purposes, 114 recommendations, 197-199, 201-202 resource implications, 114, 142-145 severity of disability and, 146-147 state variation in approaches, 27, 114-117, 137-138, 149 and teacher education and professional development, 143-144 Council for Exceptional Children, 35, 255-256 Council of Chief State School Officers, 28, 35, 115, 117, 138, 144 , 258 Council of Great City Schools, 115, 258-259 Credentialing, 121, 122-123 Criterion of ultimate functioning, 119-120, 128-129

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Curriculum. See also Content standards; General education curriculum and achievement/outcomes, 30, 118-121, 149 consensus on, 37, 66-67 coverage, 30 international comparisons, 30, 138-139 student participation in, 129, 132-136 Curriculum development challenges, 65 special education, 35 standards-based reform, 27, 33 participants, 44, 65, 66 time, 33 Deaf-blindness, 71, 72, 80, 81, 88, 93 Deafness, 71, 72, 80, 81, 99, 109, 131, 273 n.5 Disabilities. See also Classification of disabilities; specific classifications age trends, 86-87 characteristics related to, 88-90 defined, 250 gender distribution, 88 medical model of, 80-81 prevalence of, 4, 76, 86, 88-90 social system model, 81-82 Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 250. See also Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 25, 253. See also Improving America's Schools Act Eligibility for special education. See also Identification of students with disabilities assessment for, 70-71, 77-78, 154, 167 criteria, 69, 75, 85 defined, 250 poverty threshold, 26 severity of disability and, 75, 107 taxonomy and, 85 and treatment decisions, 84 Emotional disturbance/disability, 55, 79, 97, 99, 102, 260, 265, 271-273. See also Serious emotional disturbance Employment competitive, 98, 99, 101, 250 disability status and, 98-99, 120 high school graduation/diploma and, 98, 121, 122-123 outcomes of special education students, 4, 54, 94, 98-99 parental involvement in education and, 101 preparation programs, 120-121 transition services, 119, 149 Family. See also Parental involvement attitudes, and achievement, 268-272, 273 single-parent households, 90, 105 status, and achievement, 100, 266, 268-272 France, 30 Functional academics, 79 Functional life skills, 146 Gender differences achievement test data, 264, 265, 267, 274 in disability status, 88 math scores, 274 General education curriculum course-taking patterns, 134-136 IEP connection to, 4-5, 56, 59 as least restrictive environment, 59 participation time of students with disabilities, 56, 90-91, 109, 129, 132-136, 254-255 secondary school, 134-136 Georgia, 29 n.8, 76 Goals 2000: Educate America Act assessments, 24-25, 174 charge to committee under, 2 conditions for grants, 23, 26 content standards, 22 controversies, 23-24, 259 defined, 251 National Education Goals, 14-15, 23 opportunity-to-learn standards, 23-24 parental involvement goals, 23 performance standards, 22 professional education, 143 systemic approach to reform, 45 Hawaii, 76 Health and physical education standards, 116 Hearing impairment, 71, 72, 75, 80, 81, 88, 93, 97, 99, 134, 273 n.5 High school graduation academic credit requirements, 134 course-taking patterns and, 136 credentialing issue, 121, 122-123 differentiated diplomas, 96, 121, 122 and employment, 98, 121, 122-123 litigation, 123 minimum competency tests, 32, 61, 123, 156, 187-188 recommendations, 206-207 special education students, 4, 13, 54, 94, 95-96, 112 Hispanic Americans, 88-89, 264, 265, 268-272, 274

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Identification of students with disabilities. See also Classification of disabilities criteria for, 4, 54-56, 65, 110 emotional disorders, 260 factors affecting, 75 fiscal incentives/disincentives, 55, 71 process, 69-71 race/ethnicity and, 88-89, 90, 104 socioeconomic status and, 89-90 teacher referrals, 70, 71, 75 Illinois, 188 Implementation of standards-based reform barriers to, 3, 8, 64-65, 69 classroom instruction, 41-44 content standards, 36-39, 40-44, 140-141 disabilities and, 34-36, 69 funding incentives, 34 individualization, 35-36, 40-44 legal requirements, 140-141 performance standards, 36-39, 140 personnel requirements, 142, 145 recommendations, 10, 197-208 teachers, 40-44, 143-144 Improving America's Schools Act (IASA) accommodations and adaptations, 26 assessments and reports, 25-26 content standards, 25-26 defined, 251 Title I programs, 2, 25-26, 165, 174, 253, 262 Individualized education program (IEP). See also Appropriate education accommodations, 59, 61, 159-160 and accountability, 54, 56, 147-148, 150, 151-152, 160 assessment participation documented in, 158, 160, 188, 256 connection to general education curriculum, 56, 260 content standards and, 138, 147-148 defined, 3, 47, 251 diplomas, 96, 112 and IDEA implementation, 56-57 instruction and curricular planning, 119, 160-161, 256 litigation, 63 parental involvement in, 6, 56, 62, 64, 102-105, 111, 147, 255, 256 process, 56, 59, 64, 92, 102-103, 111, 147-148, 195-196, 258-259 recommendations, 9, 199-200 rights to, 3, 70, 108, 195-196, 257 shortcomings, 56, 65, 136-137, 257, 258-259 and standards-based reform, 13, 106, 108, 136-137, 255 teachers' views on, 56 team, 59, 158, 159-160, 251 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). See also Individualized education program appropriate education under, 3, 46, 58, 61, 92, 107, 140 assessment requirements, 187, 193 basic requirements, 46, 58, 68, 189 defined, 251 definitions of disabilities, 54, 71-75, 258 eligibility criteria, 69-71 funding/appropriations, 26, 47, 54 goals, 47, 53 implementation, 47, 53-64 limitations, 259, 260 litigation, 57-59 number of children served under, 86 n.4, 186 parental involvement principle, 62-64, 102 placement data collection, 92 n.7 Section 504 compared with, 50 state participation, 47, 50, 51-52 transition services, 119 voluntary participation by states, 47, 50 Instructional practices. See also Teachers classification of disability and, 84-85 content standards and, 5, 40-44, 114, 117-118, 139, 149-150 cooperative learning, 132, 133 criterion of ultimate functioning, 119-120, 128-129 effective special education instruction, 5-6, 121, 123-129, 141-142, 149 experiential learning, 139 explicit-conceptualization, 126-129, 141-142, 146, 149 individually referenced decision making in standards-based reform 40-44, 124-125, 129, 133, 141-142, 149 intensive, 125-126, 129, 141-142, 145, 146, 149 Madeline Hunter Methods, 133 mastery learning, 132, 133 materials, 41, 145 skill-and-drill approach, 128, 131, 255 skills-based, 126-129 for students with disabilities, 125-129, 132-133, 141-142 technology for, 130, 131-132, 145 traditional strategies, 40-41 whole-language pedagogy, 38, 132, 133 Intelligence, 78-79,154. See also Cognitive disabilities

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform International comparisons, curriculum coverage, 30, 138-139 Iowa, 138, 155 Japan, 30 Kansas, 28 Kentucky education reforms accountability system, 169 n.8 applicability to all children, 34, 36, 51-52 assessment program, 28 n.7, 33 n.12, 34, 38, 39, 157, 172-173, 174 , 175, 190, 255 comprehensiveness, 45 content standards, 43, 115, 137 Education Reform Act, 45 n.20, 157 effectiveness, 33 n.12 implementation process, 33, 41, 43-44 professional development, 44, 144 Language arts instructional practices, 132, 133 standards, 115, 116 testing, 37-38 Language development. See Communication skills and language development Learning. See also Achievement and outcomes of students; Opportunity to learn constructivist, 117-118, 126-128, 129, 149-150, 250 content standards and, 138-139 cooperative, 132, 133 hierarchy of, 127-128 instructional technology and, 132 IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion, 154 mastery, 132, 133 outcomes, 32, 274 Learning disabilities accommodations, 61, 106, 274-275 and achievement test scores, 265, 271-273, 274, 275 characteristics, 76-77, 84, 87 and content standards, 146-147 criteria for determining, 74, 75, 78 definition, 73, 75, 78, 81-82 diagnosis, 78, 81, 83 eligibility for special education, 55 and general education courses, 134 instruction and curricular planning, 120, 133 outcomes of students with, 95, 97, 98, 99, 120 and placement decisions, 92, 93 prevalence, 4, 76, 86, 87, 178 race/ethnic trends, 89 social stigma of labeling and, 83 treatment, 84 Least restrictive environment, 3, 58, 59-61, 92, 94, 251 Legal issues in assessment, 186-189 in content standards, 140-148 for special education, 53-64 Litigation/lawsuits Alabama Coalition for Equity v. Hunt, 52 Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley, 57-59, 62, 69, 140 Board of Education, Sacramento City Unified School District v. Holland , 60 Brookhart v. Illinois State Board of Education, 61, 188 Coalition to Save Our Children v. Board of Education, 90 Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education, 60 Debra P. v. Turlington, 123, 187-188 Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia, 53 Oberti v. Board of Education of Borough of Clementon, 60 Opinion of the Justices of the Alabama Supreme Court, 52 Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 53 Rose v. Council for Better Education, 52 San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 51 Smith v. Robinson, 53 Low-achieving students, 4, 55, 84, 124 n.3, 152, 160, 165 Maine, 138 Maryland education reforms, 33, 36, 165 accommodations, 178 applicability to all children, 36 assessment program, 28 n.6, n.7, 42, 156, 157, 171 n.10, 172-173, 174-175, 176, 178 content standards, 137, 139 professional development, 143, 144 Massachusetts, 63, 76, 155 special education laws51, 54, 64 Mathematics, 38, 41, 274 achievement, 97, 102, 263, 266, 268-272, 273 assessments, 162, 180 n.14, 181 curriculum coverage, 30, 38, 136-137 hierarchy of learning, 127-128 instructional practices, 132, 133 standards, 31, 37, 115-116, 117

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Mental retardation classification variations, 76, 83 definition, 71, 72, 78 diagnosis, 78, 79, 81, 83 mild, 4, 55, 81, 83, 84, 87 moderate to severe, 81, 87 outcomes of students with, 95, 96, 99 prevalence, 4, 76, 86, 87, 178 in severe multiple disabilities, 77, 109 social stigma of labeling, 82-83 Michigan, 41, 115, 123, 143 Mild disabilities and academic achievement, 78 classification variations, 76, 87-89 and content standards, 146 identification of, 4, 75, 81 instruction and curricular planning, 120, 126, 131 and participation in standards-based reform, 106-107 race/ethnicity and, 88-90 and special education, 75-77 Minorities, See Race/ethnicity; specific minorities Mississippi, 76 Missouri, 35, 143 Moderate disabilities, 77-78 Motor skills, 80, 107, 146 Multiple disabilities, 72, 75, 81, 88, 93, 94, 96, 99, 108-109, 134 National Academy of Sciences, 31 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 90, 132, 137, 157, 181 , 191-192 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 27 n.3, 31, 41 n.16, 117, 118 National Council on Disability, 104, 256 National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), 91, 95 n.9, 100, 132 National Longitudinal Transitional Study of Special Educational Students (NLTS) , 54, 88, 90, 94-98, 101, 134-136, 252 National Research Council, 82-83, 117, 166 National Science Foundation, 31 Native Americans, 88-89, 104 Nebraska, 139, 155 New Jersey, 51, 76 New Standards Project, 190, 257-258 New York, 76, 123 testing policies, 28 nn.6, 7, 157, 159 North Carolina, 34, 43 Ohio, 28 n.7 Opportunity to learn content standards and, 140, 147 credentialing and, 123 defined, 23, 252 legal basis for, 189 minimum competency test and, 188-189 recommendations, 10, 204-205 standards, 23-24, 29-30, 141-142 strategies, 12, 24 Oregon, 115 Orthopedic impairment, 73, 75, 88, 93, 97, 99, 273 n.5 Other health impairment, 73, 75, 81, 87, 88, 93, 99, 133, 134, 265 Outcomes. See Achievement and outcomes of students Parent education, and student achievement, 100, 267, 268-272, 274 Parental expectations, and achievement, 6, 101-102, 111, 267, 268-272, 274 Parental involvement and achievement, 6, 100-102, 111, 268-272, 274 barriers to participation, 103-104, 111 IDEA requirements, 62-64, 102 in IEP process, 6, 56, 62, 64, 101-105, 111, 147, 255, 256 measures of, 100-101 minority and poverty status and, 6, 104-105, 111, 147 recommendations, 10, 204-205 in special education process, 6, 56, 62-64, 100, 102-105, 257, 259 in standards-based reforms, 63, 100, 111, 255 Participation of students with disabilities in accountability systems, 54, 60-61, 158-161, 192, 255-256 in assessments, 24-25, 34, 54, 71, 153, 158-190, 192, 254-255, 267 , 272 course-taking in secondary schools, 134-136 definition of, 256-257 in general education curriculum, 56, 90-91, 109, 110, 129, 132-136, 150, 255-256 implications of increases in, 190-192 rationale for, 136-137 recommendations, 197-210 severity of disability and, 80, 107-109, 110-111 special education enrollments, 49, 53-54 time spent in secondary schools, 134 Pennsylvania, 38, 63, 138

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Performance of students with disabilities comparability of, 168-169 context-dependence of, 169-170 grades, 96-97 measurement of, 39-40, 64, 157; see also Assessment Performance standards, 3, 22, 27-28, 36-39, 165, 252 Phonics, 38, 117, 133 Phonological processing, 126, 127 Physical disabilities, 133, 265, 271-272, 273 n.5 Post-school outcomes. See Achievement and outcomes of students Postsecondary education, 4, 54, 98-99, 101, 120, 169 Prospects study achievement levels of students, 97, 132, 267-273 cohort, point-estimate models, 266-273 design, 262-263 multivariate estimates of achievement, 266-275 of parental involvement, 100, 101-102 value-added models, 273-275 Public Law 94-142, 46, 47, 52, 62-63, 64. See also Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Qualification for special education. See Classification of disabilities; Identification of students with disabilities Race/ethnicity and achievement test data, 264, 265, 267, 268-272, 274 and identification of children with disabilities, 88-89, 90, 104, 258-259 and high school graduation, 95 and parental participation, 6, 104-105, 111, 147 Reading achievement, 97, 102, 263, 266, 268-272, 273, 274 disability status and, 102, 274 instruction, 38, 126, 127, 133 standards, 116, 117 Recommendations accountability system, 7, 9-10, 200-201, 202-203 alterations to standards and assessments, 7, 10, 198-199, 201-202, 202-204 assessment, 10, 197-204, 205, 210 design of standards, 9, 197-198, 201-202 guiding principles, 197 IEP process, 9, 199-200 implementation of standards-based reform, 10, 207-208 opportunity to learn, 10, 205-206 outcomes monitoring, 10, 206-207 parental involvement, 10, 204-205 research, 208-210 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, 47, 50, 52, 54, 61, 68, 69, 165, 174, 187, 189, 252 Reporting of assessment results accommodations and, 177, 179, 183, 184 and accountability for students with disabilities, 7, 185 altered assessments, 173, 175 by broad performance levels, 157 classification of disability and, 178 cohort, point-estimate models, 266-273 confidentiality and labeling concerns, 184-185 design of mechanisms for, 7, 184 disaggregation of data, 184, 185-186, 203, 250 exclusion of students with disabilities, 71, 158, 181 flagging, 158, 184-185 measurement error, 167 multivariate estimates of achievement, 266-275 normative, 157 point estimates of achievement, 263-265 recommendations, 200-201, 202-203, 206-207 reliability, 40, 162, 163-165, 185-186, 252, 275 unit of accountability and, 183-184 and use for tracking students with disabilities, 161 validity of inferences, 39, 65, 162, 163, 165-171, 173, 177, 178, 179, 183, 184, 185, 186-187, 253 value-added models, 155, 273-275 Research needs accommodated testing, 182, 210 achievement of students with disabilities, 97-98, 112 assessments, 193-194, 210 clinical and psychometric, 65 computer technology applications, 209-210 credentialing alternatives, 210 inclusion of students in general education curriculum, 255 instructional methods, 150, 209

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform local decision-making processes, 209 recommendations, 208-210 resource implications of reforms, 209 school experiences of students with disabilities, 209 special education models, 209 special education population, 111-112 Resources content standards and, 114, 142-145 shortages, 2 Science assessments, 181 curriculum, 30 n.10, 37, 115-116, 117, 137, 139 Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS), 30 Secondary schools course-taking patterns, 134-136 curricular priorities, 120, 149 time in general education courses, 134-136 Sensory status, 80, 146 Serious emotional disturbance (SED), 83, 84, 87, 93, 95, 133, 134 definition, 73, 75 diagnosis, 79, 81, 83, 84 prevalence, 4, 76, 86, 87 Severe disabilities, 77, 78 and assessments, 153, 169, 174 content standards for, 137, 138, 146 defined, 252 instruction and curricular planning, 119-120, 126, 128-129 participation in standards-based reform, 80, 106, 108-109 Social competencies. See Adaptive behavior Social functioning, 79, 107, 126, 129 Social stigma, 59, 82-83, 96 Socioeconomic/poverty status and achievement test scores, 95, 100, 264, 266-267, 268-272 and identification of disabilities, 89-90, 91 and outcomes of students, 95 and parental participation, 6, 104-105, 111, 147 Special education. See also Individualized education program; Instruction practices; specific legislation accommodations in services, 61, 92-93 accountability in, 49, 151-152, 255 characteristics of students, 86-100, 111-112 costs and financing, 48-49 declassification rates, 70-71 defined, 252 eligibility, 54-55, 69-86 enrollments, 49, 53-54, 71 federal initiatives, 2-3, 46-51 guiding assumptions, 53-64, 113 history of, 52-53 implementation of, 52-64 least restrictive environment, 59-61 legalization of, 63-64, 65 minority overrepresentation in, 88-89, 90, 104, 258-259 National Longitudinal Transitional Study, 54, 101 parental participation, 6, 56, 62-64, 102-105 placement policies, 1, 90-94, 196-197 policy assumptions, 52-64 rationale behind, 52-53 referral rates, 71, 112, 159 standards-based reform melded with, 20-22, 45, 64-67 state laws, 2, 51-52 Speech and language (Sp/L) disorders and achievement test scores, 265, 271-272, 273 n.5 characteristics of, 79-80, 87 declassification rates, 71 n.2 definition, 73, 75 instructional methods, 133, 134 and outcomes of students, 96, 97, 98, 99 and placement decisions, 92, 93 prevalence, 4, 76, 86, 87 Standards-based reform. See also Content standards; Performance standards; specific legislation accountability in, 1-2, 27, 28, 65 alignment concept, 25, 65, 113, 141, 249 applicability to all students, 1-2, 3, 12, 33-36, 109 assessment in, 152, 155-157, 158-190 basis for policy, 11, 20-21 costs, 40, 48-49, 142, 143-144 credentialing issue, 121, 122-123 defined, 1, 3, 253 federal initiatives, 22-26 goals, 1, 5, 21, 148-149, 156 guiding assumptions, 2, 33-46, 113, 195 implementation, 3, 33-46, 64-65, 106, 255 issues and challenges, 11-12, 45, 109 and least restrictive environment, 60 local variability, 41 n.16 models for standard setting, 31 parental involvement in, 63, 100, 111, 255 policy assumptions, 33-46 political and perceptual barriers, 65-66 rationale behind policies, 29-32, 140

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform recommendations, 197-210 state initiatives, 3, 26-29 State policies and initiatives. See also individual states accommodations, 28-29, 159-160 accountability systems, 27, 28, 155 assessment formats, 27-28, 155, 158 classification of disabilities, 4, 76, 83-84 content standards, 27, 114-117, 137-138, 149 plan requirements under Goals 2000, 24 special-education laws, 51-52 standards-based reform initiatives, 26-29 variations in education policies, 3, 21, 27-28 Students with disabilities. See also Achievement and outcomes of students; Participation of students with disabilities; Performance of students with disabilities characteristics, 86-100 disability-related characteristics, 88-90 educational placement, 90-94 entitlement to appropriate education, 56-59 in general education curriculum, 129, 132-136 identification of, 54-56, 185-186 longitudinal studies/databases, 91-92 number qualifying for special education, 69, 110 Systemic reform, 31, 34, 44-46, 253 Teachers. See also Instructional practices acceptance of standards-based reform, 36, 40-41, 42, 66 accountability, 155 capacity-building, 42 n.17 caseloads in special education, 145 curriculum development role, 44 IEP, views on, 56 licensure standards, 144 training and professional development, 44, 64, 130, 142, 143-144, 148, 189, 259, 260, 261 Technology and assessments, 183, 255 assistive devices, 130-131 instructional, 130, 131-132, 255 Tennessee, 28 n.7, 123, 154, 155 Tests. See also Assessment; Reporting of assessment results Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, 263 Graduate Record Examination, 177, 179 high-stakes, 108, 152, 156, 159, 168, 187, 251 Law School Admission Test (LSAT), 180 minimum competency, 32, 61, 123, 156, 187-188 Scholastic Aptitude Test, 177, 179, 180 standardized, 107, 151, 173, 176, 252-253, 256 "teaching to,"; 152 Texas, 28 n.7 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 30 Title I programs, 2, 25-26, 165, 174, 185, 253, 262 Traumatic brain injury, 74, 75, 80, 81, 88, 93 Vermont, 34, 39, 137, 143, 163 Visual impairment including blindness, 74, 80, 81, 88, 93, 99, 134 , 186 Vocational/occupational programs achievement/outcomes, 135, 136 content standards, 5, 115, 146, 149 participation, 135 skills, 79 training, 98, 101 Washington state, 139 Workshop questions posed for, 254 presentations and discussions, 254-261 Writing, 38, 116, 132 Wyoming, 155