Educating One & All

Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform

Lorraine M. McDonnell, Margaret J. McLaughlin, and Patricia Morison, Editors

Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

Board on Testing and Assessment

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1997



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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Educating One & All Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Lorraine M. McDonnell, Margaret J. McLaughlin, and Patricia Morison, Editors Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities Board on Testing and Assessment Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The study was supported by Grant No. H023U40001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of Special and Rehabilitative Services, U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Educating one and all: students with disabilities and standards-based reform / Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities, Board on Testing and Assessment, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council; Lorraine M. McDonnell, Margaret J. McLaughlin, and Patricia Morison, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-05789-2 (cloth) 1. Handicapped children—Education—United States—Evaluation. 2. Handicapped children—Education—Standards—United States. 3. Competency based education—United States. 4. Inclusive education—United States. 5. Educational accountability—United States. I. McDonnell, Lorraine, 1947- . II. McLaughlin, Margaret J. III. Morison, Patricia. IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities. LC4031.E3853 1997 371.91—dc2 197-4869 CIP Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform COMMITTEE ON GOALS 2000 AND THE INCLUSION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES LORRAINE M. McDONNELL (Cochair), Departments of Political Science and Education, University of California, Santa Barbara MARGARET J. McLAUGHLIN (Cochair), Institute for the Study of Exceptional Children, University of Maryland ANSLEY BACON, Westchester Institute for Human Development, Westchester County Medical Center, Valhalla, NY STEPHEN N. ELLIOTT, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison LYNN S. FUCHS, Department of Special Education, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University MARGARET E. GOERTZ, Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania MICHAEL L. HARDMAN, Office of the Dean, Graduate School of Education, University of Utah TED S. HASSELBRING, Department of Special Education, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University DANIEL M. KORETZ, RAND Corporation, Washington, DC ARIE L. NETTLES, School of Education, University of Michigan IAN E. NOVOS, KPMG Peat Marwick LLP, New York, NY DIANA C. PULLIN, School of Education, Boston College DANIEL J. RESCHLY, Department of Psychology, Iowa State University MARTHA THURLOW, National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota EDWARD LEE VARGAS, Santa Fe Public Schools, Santa Fe, NM RICHARD K. WAGNER, Department of Psychology, Florida State University JOHN F. WITTE, Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison CARL F. KAESTLE, Department of Education, University of Chicago (Ex-Officio, BOTA) LUIS LAOSA, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ (Ex-Officio, BOTA)* PATRICIA MORISON, Study Director ADRIENNE F. CARRINGTON, Administrative Assistant *   BOTA member until September 1996

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT RICHARD SHAVELSON (Chair), School of Education, Stanford University LAURIE J. BASSI (Vice Chair), American Society for Training and Development, Washington, DC ROBERT L. LINN (Vice Chair), School of Education, University of Colorado RICHARD C. ATKINSON, President, University of California IRALINE G. BARNES, Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC DAVID C. BERLINER, College of Education, Arizona State University PAUL J. BLACK, School of Education, King's College, London RICHARD P. DURÁAN, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara CHRISTOPHER F. EDLEY, JR., Harvard Law School RICHARD F. ELMORE, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University ARTHUR S. GOLDBERGER, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison PAUL W. HOLLAND, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley CARL F. KAESTLE, Department of Education, University of Chicago MICHAEL W. KIRST, School of Education, Stanford University ALAN M. LESGOLD, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh KENNETH PEARLMAN, Lucent Technologies, Inc., Warren, NJ ALAN H. SCHOENFELD, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley CLAUDE M. STEELE, Department of Psychology, Stanford University WILLIAM L. TAYLOR, Attorney At Law, Washington, DC EWART A.C. THOMAS, Department of Psychology, Stanford University JACK WHALEN, Institute for Research on Learning, Menlo Park, CA MICHAEL J. FEUER, Director JAN LIVERANCE, Administrative Assistant ADRIENNE F. CARRINGTON, Administrative Assistant

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Acknowledgments The work of the Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities has benefited immensely from the diverse contributions of many people. Between May 1995 and November 1996, the committee met seven times. It solicited information from a variety of sources. Jane West wrote an informative background paper and provided the committee with relevant information about the legislative and policy context of the study. Robert Rossi and Fran Stancavage from the American Institutes of Research presented findings from their secondary analyses of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) that helped us think about the challenges associated with including students with disabilities in large-scale national databases. Mary Wagner of the Stanford Research Institute and Marsha Brauen of Westat, Inc., provided a variety of useful data on the status of students with disabilities. Jeff Rodamar at the U.S. Department of Education provided data from the Prospects Study that allowed us to compare the elementary school experiences and achievement of students with disabilities with those of their peers. We are especially indebted to Eileen Ordover and Kathleen Boundy from the Center for Law and Education for their comprehensive analysis of the legal entitlements of students with disabilities. In October 1995, the committee held a workshop with participants from 10 organizations representing general education or disability groups interested in standards-based reform. Through their remarks and written documents, Eileen Ahearn, Joseph Ballard, John Barth, Christopher Button, Speed Davis, Barbara Huff, John MacDonald, Nancy Safer, Jeff Schneider, Shirley Schwartz, and Patricia Sullivan provided valuable perspectives on the complex issues asso-

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform ciated with the participation of students with disabilities in standards-based reforms. Several organizations and individuals provided a variety of research support. The Robert LaFollette Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, partly supported work on the Prospects data, and Troy Sterr skillfully analyzed that data. The National Center for Educational Outcomes at the University of Minnesota helped in collecting state documents and provided the assistance of Kristin Geenen to code selected documents. Lauren Morando-Rhim at the University of Maryland also collected and coded state and local standards and assessment documents, as well as assisting in other research. Margrethe Kamp at the University of California, Santa Barbara, prepared the appendix summarizing the committee's 1995 workshop. We are grateful for all these contributions. The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services, U.S. Department of Education, sponsored this project, and several individuals from this agency were particularly helpful to the committee. Assistant Secretary Judith Heumann met with the committee and shared her perspective on the issues. We are grateful to Tom Hehir for his support, and also to James Button and Louis Danielson, both of whom met with the committee several times and assisted us in locating needed information. The study's project officer, David Malouf, assisted the committee in understanding the evolving federal policy context for special education and Alexander Vachon, formerly on the staff of Senator Robert Dole, Robert Silverstein, on the staff of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Disability Policy, and Michael Cohen, formerly in the U.S. Secretary of Education's office and now at the White House, provided useful insights on the origins of the legislative provision creating the committee. The Board on Testing and Assessment (BOTA) was instrumental in shaping early discussions about the project and in providing general guidance and support along the way. The chair and vice chair of BOTA, Richard Shavelson and Robert Linn, assisted the committee by reviewing early drafts of the report and by participating in a meeting at which issues related to student assessment were discussed. Their insights and knowledge at a critical point in our work were much appreciated. Two other members of BOTA, Carl Kaestle and Luis Laosa, served as liaisons to the committee, and were extremely helpful. Their apt interpretations and skill at synthesizing various points of view often aided us in moving our discussions forward. This report would not have been possible without the talents of many individuals at the National Research Council. As executive director of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Barbara Torrey helped in the overall administration of the study. Alexandra K. Wigdor, director of the Division of Education, Labor, and Human Performance, provided continuing guidance. Michael J. Feuer, director of the Board on Testing and Assessment, was responsible for overseeing the committee's work and ensuring that we had the resources needed to complete the task. He did all of this and more. Michael

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform contributed to our conversations, always challenging our assumptions and helping us to resolve differences and achieve consensus. Adrienne Carrington ably assisted the committee by organizing all the logistics for our meetings and producing multiple iterations of the report from the many drafts received from committee members. Each of us appreciates the efficiency with which she managed the technical details associated with this project, but we are also grateful for the gracious hospitality she provided at our meetings. Nancy Kober's skilled editing is evident throughout the report as she was instrumental in turning a weighty technical report into a concise and readable document. Eugenia Grohman skillfully guided us through the intricacies of the NRC review process, and Christine McShane carefully edited the final document. Ella Cleveland was instrumental in getting the project under way and organizing the various committee working groups. Ann Harden and Kathy Guidroz assisted in a number of ways, including conducting literature reviews and analyzing documents. Above all, the committee acknowledges the ability, patience, and effort of study director Patricia Morison. Patty brought to the deliberations her extensive knowledge of assessment and her own high standards of scholarship. She reminded the committee of its obligation to fulfill its charge with a high level of scientific rigor. Patty's ability to organize and synthesize all the various written drafts provided by committee members was central to the report we have produced. Perhaps her greatest contribution, however, was keeping the committee organized and moving its deliberations forward through the force of her calm grace and respectful attention to everyone's views. Finally, as cochairs, we would to like thank our fellow committee members, who gave enormous amounts of time and energy to this endeavor and who persevered as we negotiated new and sometimes complex territory. Often members communicated across a chasm created by the historic separation of general and special education. Not only did we have to learn each other's professional language, but we also had to develop an understanding of and respect for perspectives quite different from our own. Inevitably, there were periods of intense disagreement, but there were also times in which fresh understandings produced new ideas and insights. We know we echo the sentiment of all the members when we say that serving on this committee has been a professionally and personally enriching experience. LORRAINE M. McDONNELL MARGARET J. McLAUGHLIN Cochairs, Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   11     Study Purpose and Approach,   14     Limitations of the Study,   16     Organization of the Report,   18 2   THE POLICY FRAMEWORKS   20     Standards-Based Reform,   22     Special Education,   46     Conclusions,   64 3   THE DIVERSITY OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES   68     Who Qualifies for Special Education?,   69     Students and Schooling Characteristics,   86     Parental Involvement,   100     Participation in Standards-Based Reform: Issues and Case Examples,   105     Conclusions,   110 4   CONTENT STANDARDS, CURRICULUM, AND INSTRUCTION   113     Content Standards in Standards-Based Reform,   114     Post-School Outcomes, Curriculum, and Instruction in Special Education,   118     Participation of Students with Disabilities in Content Standards and Curriculum,   129     Conclusions,   148

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform 5   ACCOUNTABILITY AND ASSESSMENT   151     Overview of Accountability Systems,   154     Assessment in Standards-Based Reform,   155     Current Participation of Students with Disabilities in Accountability and Assessment Systems,   158     Increasing the Participation of Students with Disabilities in Large-Scale Assessments,   161     Implications of Increased Participation of Students with Disabilities,   190     Conclusions,   192 6   RECOMMENDATIONS   195     REFERENCES   211     APPENDICES         A GLOSSARY   249     B WORKSHOP SUMMARY: STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES AND STANDARDS-BASED REFORM   254     C USING THE PROSPECTS DATA TO REPORT ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES   262     D BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES   276     INDEX   283

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Educating One & All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Educating One & All

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