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APPENDIX Officers and Members of the Council E of the :\fational Academy of Sciences, 1863 1963 OFFlCERS1 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1863-1963 OFFICERS I PRESIDENTS 1863- 1867 Alexander Dallas Bache 1868- 1878 Joseph Henry 1879- 1882 William Barton Rogers 1883-1895 Othniel Charles Marsh 1895- 1900 Wolcott Gibbs 1901-1907 Alexander Agassiz 1907-1913 Ira Remsen 1 ~ 13- 1917 William Henry Welch 1917-1923 Charles Doolittle Walcott 1923-1927 Albert Abraham Michelson 1927-1931 Thomas Hunt Morgan 1 NOTE: Term of office changed from six to four years in 1918. 634 1931-1935 William Wallace Campbell 1935-1939 Frank Rattray Lillie 1939-1947 Frank Baldwin Jewett 1947-1950 Alfred Newton Richards 1950-1962 Detlev Wulf Bronk 1962-1969 Frederick Seitz II VICE PRESIDENTS 1863-1865 James Dwight Dana 1866-1868 Joseph Henry

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Appendix E 1 635 1868-1871 William Chauvenet 1872-1878 Wolcott Gibbs 1878-1883 Othniel Charles Marsh 1883- 1889 Simon New comb 1889-1891 Samuel Pierpont Langley 1891 -1897 Francis Amasa WaLker 1897-1903 Asaph Hall 1903-1907 Ira Remsen 1863-1872 Wolcott Gibbs 1907-1917 Charles Doolittle Walcott 1872-1878 Julius Erasmus Hilgard 1917-1923 Albert Abraham Michelson 1878-1881 J. H. C. Coffin 1923-1927 John Campbell Merriam 1881-1883 Simon Newcomb 1927-1931 Frederick Eugene Wright 1883-1897 Asaph Hall 1931-1933 David White 1897-1901 Ira Remsen 1933-1941 Arthur Louis Day 1901-1913 Arnold Hague 1941-1945 Isaiah Bowman 1913-1918 Arthur Louis Day 1945-1949 Luther Pfahler Eisenhart 1919-1923 Charles Greeley Abbot 1949-1953 Edwin Bidwell Wilson 1923-1931 David White 1953-1957 George Washington Corner 1931-1951 Frederick Eugene Wright 1957-1961 Farrington Daniels 1951-1955 Alexander Wetmore 1961-1965 Julius Adams Stratton 1955-1965 Hugh Latimer Dryden III FOREIGN SECRETARIES 1950-1954 Roger Adams 1954-1958 John Gamble Kirkwood 1958-1961 Howard Percy Robertson 1962-1974 Harrison Brown2 IV HOME SECRETARIES V TREASURERS 1863-1873 Louis Agassiz 1863-1881 Fairman Rogers 1874-1880 F. A. P. Barnard 1881-1887 J. H. C. Coffin 1880-1886 Alexander Agassiz 1887-1898 John Shaw Billings 1886-1895 Wolcott Gibbs 1898-1902 Charles Doolittle Walcott 1895-1901 Alexander Agassiz 1902-1911 Samuel Franklin Emmons 1901-1903 Ira Remsen 1911-1919 Whitman Cross 1903-1909 Simon Newcomb 1919-1924 Frederick Leslie Ransome 1909-1910 Alexander Agassiz 192~1928 George Kimball Burgess 1910-1921 George Ellery Hale 1928-1932 Joseph Sweetman Ames 1921-1934 Robert Andrews Millikan 1932-1940 Arthur Keith 1934-1936 Thomas Hunt Morgan 1940-1948 Jerome Clark Hunsaker 1936-1942 Lawrence Joseph Henderson 1948-1960 William Jacob Robbins 1942-1945 Walter Bradford Cannon 1960-1968 Lloyd Viel Berkner 1945-1950 Detlev Wulf Bronk - 2Appointed in January 1962 to replace Howard Percy Robertson, deceased.

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636 1 ~ppend?uc E MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES,1 1863-1963 18632 Charles H. Davis Lewis M. Rutherfurd J. Peter Lesley John Torrey 1864 Charles H. Davis Lewis M. Rutherfurd J. Peter Lesley John Torrey 1865 Benjamin A. Gould J. Peter Lesley John L. LeConte 1866 Benjamin A. Gould John L. LeConte 1867 Spencer F. Baird Benjamin A. Gould 1868-18695 Spencer F. Baird Benjamin Pearce Chairman, Class A Benjamin Silliman, Sr. Chairman, Class B Benjamin Peirce Chairman, Class A Augustus A. Gould Chairman, Class B Benjamin Peirce Lewis M. Rutherfurd Montgomery C. Meigs William D. Whitney Montgomery C. Meigs John S. Newberry John L. LeConte Chairman, Class A Louis Agassiz Chairman, Class B Benjamin Peirce Chairman, Chass A Arnold Guyot3 Chairman, Class B Chairman, Class A4 Chairman, Class B Hubert A. Newton6 Chairman, Class A ~ In addition to the President, Vice-President, Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary, and Treasurer. 2In 1863 the Council consisted of the officers of the Academy and the chairmen of the classes (Class A, Mathematics and Physics; Class B. Natural History), together with four members who were elected annually at the January session (NAS, Annual Report for 1863, p. 1 14). 3According to the Academy "Minutes" (January 27, 1866, p. 142), Arnold Guyot was elected Chairman of the Class of Natural History; the NAS Proceedings (August 1866, p. 53) list Louis Agassiz as Chairman. 4Election of class officers was not recorded in the Academy '`Minutes" in 1867.

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Append~xE / 637 Andrew A. Humphreys Benjamin Pearce James Hall Chairman, Class B 1869-1870 Andrew A. Humphreys John L. LeConte 1870-1871 Spencer F. Baird Andrew A. Humphreys J. H. C. Coffin J. Peter Lesley 1871-1872 Montgomery C. Meigs7 Benjamin A. Gould Chairman, Class A William D. Whitney James Hall Chairman, Class B Montgomery C. Meigs Chairman, Class A James Hall Chairman, Class B Alexander Agassiz Montgomery C. Meigs F. A. P. Barnard Julius E. Hilgard 1872-18738 Josiah D. Whitney Chairman, Class A Spencer F. Baird Chairman, Class B Spencer F. Baird J. H. C. Coffin Benjamin Peirce George J. Brush Montgomery C. Meigs William D. Whitney 1873-1874 Spencer F. Baird Montgomery C. Meigs Benjamin Pearce J. H. C. Coffin Simon Newcomb William D. Whitney 1874-1875 Spencer F. Baird John L. LeConte Simon Newcomb J. H. C. Coffin Montgomery C. Meigs William D. Whitney9 sThe Academy Constitution was amended in 1868 so that the Washington session was held thereafter in April, instead of January; members of the Council were elected at the April session each year ("Minutes of the Academy," August 26, 1868, p. 266). 6According to the Academy "Minutes" (January 25, 1868, p. 252), Hubert A. Newton was elected Chairman of Class A; the NAS Proceedings (January 1868, p. 68) list Julius E. Hilgard as Chairman. 7Benjamin Peirce was elected to the Council on April 15, 1869, and resigned the office that day; Montgomery C. Meigs was elected in his place the following day ("Minutes of the Academy," April 15, 1869, pp. 287, 291; ibid., April 16, 1869, p. 296). sin 1872 the classes were abolished and the Council consisted of the officers of the Academy and six additional members, who were elected annually ("Minutes of the Academy," April 16, 1872, p. 374; NAS Proceedings, April 1872, p. 86). 9According to the Academy "Minutes" (April 22, 1874, p. 424), William D. Whitney was elected to the Council; the NAS Proceedings (April 1874, p. 105) list instead Josiah D. Whitney.

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638 1 Appendix E 1875-1876 Spencer F. Baird John L. LeConte John S. Newberry J. H. C. Coffin Montgomery C. Meigs Simon Newcomb 1876-1877 Spencer F. Baird John L. LeConte John S. Newberry J. H. C. Coffin Montgomery C. Meigs Simon Newcomb 1877-1878 Spencer F. Baird John L. LeConte John S. Newberry J. H. C. Coffin Montgomery C. Meigs Simon Newcomb 1878-1879 Spencer F. Baird Asaph Hall Montgomery C. Meigs Wolcott Gibbs Julius E. Hilgard Simon Newcomb 1879-1880 Alexander Agassiz Wolcott Gibbs Montgomery C. Meigs Spencer F. Baird Asaph Call Simon Newcomb 1880-1881 Spencer F. Baird Wolcott Gibbs 1881-1882 Spencer F. Baird Wolcott Gibbs 1882-1883 Asaph Hall Julius E. Hilgard Asaph Hall Julius E. Hilgard Clarence King Simon Newcomb Clarence King Fairman Rogers Spencer F. Baird Asaph Hall Montgomery C. Meigs Wolcott Gibbs Julius E. Hilgard Fairman Rogers 1883-1884 Spencer F. Baird Julius E. Hilgard Fairman Rogers Wolcott Gibbs Montgomery C. Meigs Charles A. Young10 1884-1885 Spencer F. Baird Julius E. Hilgard Samuel H. Scudder Wolcott Gibbs Montgomery C. Meigs Charles A. Young tAsaph Hall was elected to the Council on April 18, 1883; the following day he was elected Home Secretary and Charles A. Young was elected to fill the vacancy on the Council ('`Minutes of the Academy," April 18, 1883, p. 21; ibid., April 19, 1883, p. 33).

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Apper~lixE / 639 1885-1886 Spencer F. Baird Julius E. Hilgard Samuel H. Scudder Wolcott Gibbs Montgomery C. Meigs Charles A. Young 1886-1887 Spencer F. Baird SamuelP. Langley Edward C.Pickering George J. Brush Montgomery C. Meigs Charles A. Young 1887-1888 Spencer F. Bairdi George J. Brush 1888-1889 George J. Brush Benjamin A. Gould 1889-1890 George J. Brush Benjamin A. Gould 1890-1891 George J. Brush Benjamin A. Gould 1891-1892 Samuel P. Langley Montgomery C. Meigs Samuel P. Langley Montgomery C. Meigs Montgomery C. Meigs Simon Newcomb Montgomery C. Meigs Simon Newcomb Edward C. Pickering Ira Remsen Edward C. Pickering Ira Remsen Ira Remsen Francis A. WaLker Ira Remsen Francis A. WaLker George J. Brush Samuel P. Langley Simon Newcomb Benjamin A. Gould Montgomery C. Meigst2 Ira Remsen 1892-1893 George J. Brush SamuelP. Langley Simon Newcomb Benjamin A. Gould Thomas C. Mendenhall Ira Remsen 1893-1894 George J. Brush Samuel P. Langley Simon Newcomb Benjamin A. Gould Thomas C. Mendenhall Ira Remsen 1894-1895 George J. Brush SamuelP. Langley Simon Newcomb Benjamin A. Gould Thomas C. Mendenhall Ira Remsen 1 895-1896 George J. Brush George L. Goodale [Deceased August 19,1887. predeceased January 2,1892. Benjamin A. Gould Othniel C. Marsh Simon Newcomb Ira Remsen

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640 1 Appendix E 1896-1897 Henry P. Bowditch George J. Brush 1897-1898 John S. Billings Henry P. Bowditch 1898-1899 John S. Billings Henry P. Bowditch 1899-1900 John S. Billings Henry P. Bowditch 1900-1901 John S. Billings Henry P. Bowditch 1901-1902 John S. Billings Henry P. Bowditch 1902-1903 John S. Billings Henry P. Bowditch 1903-1904 John S. Billings Henry P. Bowditch Benjamin A. Gouldl3 Othniel C. Marsh George J. Brush Arnold Hague George J. Brush Arnold Hague George J. Brush Arnold Hague George J. Brush Wolcott Gibbs George J. Brush Arnold Hague~s George J. Brush Simon Newcomb George J. Brush George E. Hale Simon Newcomb Ira Remsen Othniel C. Marsh Simon Newcomb Othniel C. Marshi 4 Simon Newcomb Samuel P. Langley Simon Newcomb Arnold Hague Simon Newcomb Samuel P. Langley 6 Simon Newcomb Charles D. Walcott William H. Welch Charles D. Walcott William H. Welch Disaccording to the Academy "Minutes" (April 22, 1896, p. 486), Benjamin A. Gould was elected to the Council; he died on November 26, 1896, having attended the last Council meeting of the year eight days before ("Minutes of the Council," November 18, 1896, p. 250). TheAnnual Report for 1896 (p. 33) lists George L. Goodale instead of Mr. Gould as a member of the Council; however, no record can be found of Mr. Goodale's appointment to the Council. t4Deceased March 18, 1899. isMr. Hague was elected to the Council on April 17, 1901, and the following day elected Home Secretary. The vacancy on the Council was not filled ("Minutes of the Academy,~' April 17, 1901, p. 629; ibid., April 18, 1901, p. 631). fir. Langley resigned from the Council ("Minutes of the Council," November 13, 1901, p. 301).

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Appenda~c E / 64 1 1904-1905 John S. Billings Henry P. Bowditch 1905-1906 George J. Brush George E. Hale Charles D. Walcott William H. Welch John S. Billings George E. Hale William H. Welch Russell H. Chittenden Henry F. Osborn Robert S. Woodward 1906-1907 John S. Billings Russell H. Chittenden 1907-1908i 7 Russell H. Chittenden William H. Welch 1908-1911 William H. Welch Edmund Beecher Wilson 1911-1914 Edwin G. Conklin Arthur A. Noyes 1914-1917 Edwin G. Conklin Arthur A. Noyes 1917-1920 Edwin G. Conklin Arthur A. Noyes 1920-1923 Arthur L. Day Thomas H. Morgan George E. Hale Henry F. Osborn 1907-1909 Alexander Agassiz Robert S. Woodward 1909-1912 William M. Davis Robert S. Woodward 1912-1915 William T. Councilman Robert S. Woodward 1915-1918 John M. Coulter William H. Howell 1918-1921 Charles G. Abbot, suc- ceeded in 1919 by Raymond Pearls William H. Howell 1921-1924 George E. Hale Raymond Pearl William H. Welch Robert S. Woodward 1907-1910 George E. Hale Henry F. Osborn 1910-1913 Russell H. Chittenden Henry F. Osborn 1913-1916 Russell H. Chittenden Edmund Beecher Wilson 1916-1919 Russell H. Chittenden Michael I. Pupin 1919-1922 John J. Carty Henry H. Donaldson 1922-1925 Joseph S. Ames Gano Dunn lain 1907 six Council members were elected in addition to the officers of the Academy; two served for three years, two for two years, and two for one year. Each year thereafter the terms of two members expired, and their successors, who served for three years, were elected at the first stated session in each year (NAS, Annual Report for 1906, p. 25). fir. Abbot was elected Home Secretary in April 1919 (NAS, Annual Report for 1919, p. 27).

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642 1 Appendix E 1923-1926 Arthur L. Day William A. Noyes 1926-1929 Robert A. Harper Oswald Veblen 1928-1931 Walter B. Cannon Gano Dunn 1930-1933 James McKeen Cattell Karl T. Compton 1932-1935 Ross G. Harrison Henry N. Russell 1934-1937 Roger Adams Herbert S. Jennings 1936-1938 Ludvig Hektoen, Chairman, NRC 1938-1941 Elmer D. Merrill Floyd K. Richtmyer,20 succeeded in 1940 by Samuel A. Mitchell 1924-1927 George E. Hale Frank R. Lillie 1927-1928 Gano Dunn, l9 Chairman, NRC 1928-1932 George K. Burgess, Chairman, NRC 1931-1934 Roger Adams Walter B. Cannon 1933-1935 Isaiah Bowman, Chairman, NRC 1935-1938 Ross G. Harrison Henry N. Russell 1937-1940 Herbert S. Jennings Oswald Veblen 1939-1942 Charles A. Kraus Alfred N. Richards 1925-1928 Ernest W. Brown Gano Dunn, succeeded in 1927 by J. C. Merriam 1927-1930 George E. Hale James McKeen Cattell 1929-1932 Edwin G. Conklin Harlow Shapley 1932-1933 William H. Howell' Chairman, NRC 1933-1936 James McKeen Cattell Karl T. Compton 1936-1939 Simon Flexner John B. Whitehead 1938-1946 Ross G. Harrison, Chairman, NRC 1940-1943 W. Mansfield Clark Oswald Veblen loin 1927 the Academy Constitution was amended to include the Chairman of the Na- tional Research Council as a member of the Academy Council, provided he was a mem- ber of the Academy. Gano Dunn, as Chairman of the NRC was ex officio a member of the Council (NAS,Annual Report for 1927-28, p. 119). 2 Deceased November 7, 1939.

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Appendix E 1 643 1941-1944 Edwin B. Fred Samuel A. Mitchell 1944-1947 1942-1945 George W. Corner Alfred N. Richards 1945-1948 1943-1946 W. Mansfield Clark Walter R. Miles 1946-1949 Ernest W. Goodpasture Wendell M. Stanley Walter R. Miles Irving Langmuir John T. Tate Isidor I. Rabi 1946-1950 1947-1950 1948-1951 Detlev W. Bronk, W. Albert Noyes, Jr. Carl R. Moore Chairman, NRC Donald D. Van Slyke J. Robert Oppenheimer 1949-1952 Ernest W. Goodpasture Joel H. Hildebrand 1951-1954 William W. Rubey, Chairman, NRC 1954-1957 Farrington Daniels Merle A. Tuve 1957-1960 Frederick Seitz Harry L. Shapiro 1960-1963 G. Evelyn Hutchinson Robley C. Williams 1963-1966 Arthur Kornberg Tracy M. Sonneborn 1950-1953 Oliver E. Buckley Walter S. Hunter 1952-1955 Robert F. Loeb Wendell M. Stanley 1955-1958 Edward A. Doisy Theophilus S. Painter 1958-1961 Thomas Francis, Jr. Saunders Mac Lane 1961-1964 1951-1954 Jesse W. Beams Elvin C. Stakman 1953-1956 Hugh L. Dryden, 2 ~ succeeded in 1955 by James Gilluly Edwin Bidwell Wilson 1956-1959 Isidor I. Rabi Frederick E. Terman 1959-1962 Roger Adams William V. Houston 1962-1965 George B. Kistiakowsky Roger Revelle Kenneth B. Raper W. Barry Wood, Jr. 2~Hugh Dryden was elected Home Secretary in 1955 ('`Minutes of the Academy," April 26, 1955).