The Ecology of Industry

Sectors and Linkages

Edited by 
Deanna J. Richards and Greg Pearson 
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 
Washington, D.C. 1998



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The Ecology of Industry Sectors and Linkages Edited by  Deanna J. Richards and Greg Pearson  NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS  Washington, D.C. 1998

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Page ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS · 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. · Washington, DC 20418 The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. This volume has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. The interpretations and conclusions expressed in the papers are those of the authors and are not presented as the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. Funding for the activity that led to this publication was provided by the Ralph M. Parsons Foundation, the AT&T Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the National Academy of Engineering Technology Agenda Program. Library of Congress Cataloging Card Number: 98-84941  International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06355-8 Cover art: Distorted Eye. courtesy of the artist, Grace Selvanayagam, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii Steering Committee ROBERT A. FROSCH (Chairman), Senior Research Fellow, Harvard University (Former Vice President for Research, General Motors) PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, Executive Vice President, Automotive Aluminum Company of America ROBERT C. FORNEY, Retired Executive Vice President, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company G. FRANK JOKLIK, Retired President and CEO, Kennecott Corporation ROBERT A. LAUDISE, Director, Materials and Processing Research Laboratory, Lucent Technology LEE THOMAS, Senior Vice President, Environmental Government Affairs, Georgia-Pacific Corporation KURT YEAGER, President, Electric Power Research Institute Staff DEANNA J. RICHARDS, Project Director GREG PEARSON, Editor MARION RAMSEY, Senior Program Assistant LONG NGUYEN, Project Assistant

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Page v Preface Technology has played and will continue to play an important role in economic development and environmental protection. The industries featured in this volume have been critical to economic development and, together with other industries, represent a mosaic of economic activity that defines the ecology of industry. As humanity works toward sustainable development—and addresses economic, environmental, and social concerns in an integrated manner—solutions will be increasingly dependent on technological advances made possible by engineering. The application of technology in the service of environmental goals by the industries featured in this volume attests to that fact. Deanna J. Richards and Robert A. Frosch, in the Overview and Perspectives chapter, provide an even broader view of the role of technological innovation in environmental protection, and they speculate on the role the information revolution will have in shaping the ecology of industry well into the future. Technological advances, however, do not occur in a vacuum. The application of technology to specific situations in industry and the development of technologies that from time to time alter the technological and societial landscape result from long-term investments by industry, government, and the public. As long as that support continues, technological advances will provide the backbone for a sustainable future. The papers in this report were developed in several sectoral working sessions organized as part of an international conference on industrial ecology convened by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in May 1994. Collectively, they provide industrial perspectives on the state of practice and opportunities for improvement in designing and managing for the environment. The overview was developed based on those papers and subsequent workshops held by NAE in

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Page vi 1995 on the impact of services industries and the environment, in 1996 on polymers and the environment, and in 1997 on information technology and the environment. Many individuals were involved in the preparation of this volume. On behalf of NAE, I want to thank particularly the authors for their thoughtful contributions and the members of the conference steering committee—Peter R. Bridenbaugh, Robert Forney, Robert A. Frosch (chairman), Frank Joklik, Robert Laudise, Lee Thomas, and Kurt Yeager—for their help in organizing the conference. I would also like to thank the NAE staff who worked on this project. Deanna J. Richards, associate director of the NAE Program Office, heads NAE's Technology and Environment effort and was primarily responsible for sheparding the project through its various stages. Thanks also go to the editorial team that worked on this volume: Greg Pearson, the Academy's editor, contributed invaluable and steadfast editing and publishing oversight with the able assitance of Marion Ramsey, senior program assistant, who provided both editorial support and critical logistical and administrative support, and Long Nguyen, project assistant, who finalized the document for publication. Thanks also go to Bruce Guile, former director of the NAE Program Office, for his contribution to the genesis and oversight of this project during his tenure. Finally, I would like to express my appreciation to the AT&T Foundation and the Ralph M. Parsons Foundation for their partial support of this project and to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for its partial support of related elements of the Academy's Technology and Environment Program. WM. A. WULF President National Academy of Engineering

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Page vii Acknowledgments The industry papers in this volume reflect material presented and discussed at sectoral working groups organized at the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) International Conference on Industrial Ecology, May 9-12, 1994 in Irvine, California. The papers were subsequently revised by the authors. The NAE gratefully acknowledges the individuals who participated in the working groups and the authors of the industry papers for their patience and tireless efforts. THE EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES G. Frank Joklik, Kennecott Corp. (retired) (Chair); Ray Beebe, consultant; Preston Chiaro, Kennecott Corp.; David Cobb, Bechtel Corp.; Carmen Gonzalez, Mexican Petroleum Institute; Henning Grann, Statoil Development Project, Germany; John Innes, CRA Limited, Australia; Sue Kiser, WZI; Eduardo Loreto, Faculty of Engineering of the National University of Mexico; Hiroshi Sakurai, The Engineering Academy of Japan; Peter Schulze, Austin College (Rapporteur); and Mary Jane Wilson, WZI. PRIMARY MATERIALS PROCESSING Peter Bridenbaugh, Aluminum Company of America (Chair); Braden Allenby, AT&T; Frederick Anderson, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft; Yumi Akimoto, Mitsubishi Material Corp., Japan; Patrick Atkins, Aluminum Company of America; Andre Cabelli, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia; David Cahn, California Portland Cement Company; Craig Campbell, American Portland Cement Alliance; Gordon Forward, Chaparral Steel Company; Ann Fullerton, The Fullerton Group (Rapporteur); Corina Hebestreit, European Aluminum Association; Rolf Marstrander, Hydro Alumi-

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Page viii num a.s., Norway; Kenneth Martchek, Aluminum Company of America; Tomomi Murata, Nippon Steel Corp., Japan; Donald Sadoway, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Roger Strelow, Bechtel Corp. MANUFACTURING Robert Laudise, AT&T (Chair); Jan Agri, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences; Patrick Eagan, Engineering Professional Development; Wojciech Gaweda, Academy of Engineering of Poland; Sukehiro Gotoh, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Thomas Graedel, Yale University; Janos Hadas, Hungarian Academy of Engineering; Joseph Heim, University of Washington at Seattle (Rapporteur); Lisbeth Valentin Hansen, Danish Toxicology Center; Sverker Hogberg, Swedish Waste Research Council; Inge Horkeby, AB Volvo, Sweden; Kosuke Ishii, The Ohio State University; Gregory Keoleian, University of Michigan; Kurt Lange, University of Stuttgart, Germany; David Marks, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; William Moore, Dames and Moore; Steven Moran, Alberta Research Council, Canada; M. Granger Morgan, Carnegie Mellon University; Peter Peterson, U.S. Steel Group; Christine Rosen, University of California; Paul Sheng, University of California; Ernest Smerdon, University of Arizona; Walter Stahel, the Product-Life Institute, Switzerland; Brian Steelman, Ciba-Geigy Corp.; John Stemniski, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory; Masazumi Tanazawa, Toyota Motor Corp., Japan; and Bruce Vigon, Battelle National Laboratory. ELECTRIC UNTILITIES Ian Torrens, Electric Power Research Institute (Chair); Jesse Ausubel, Rockefeller University; Alberto Bustani, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico; David Cope, the UK Centre for Economic and Environmental Development; Glyn England, Windcluster Limited, United Kingdom; Jorgen Kjems, Forskningscenter Riso, Denmark; Richard Macve, University of Wales; Kenji Matsuo, Tokyo Electric Power Company; William Moore, Dames and Moore; Yasuo Mori, Tokyo Institute of Technology; Nobuyuki Nishikawa, Tokyo Electric Power Company; David Rejeski, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Don Roberts, CH2M Hill; Richard Schuler, Cornell University; Deanna Richards, National Academy of Engineering of the United States (Rapporteur). PULP AND PAPER W.C. Pete Howard, Georgia-Pacific Corp. (Chair); Doug Armstrong, Georgia-Pacific Corp.; Jens Folke, NfiljoForskerGruppen ApS., Denmark; Isaiah Gellman, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement of the United States; Robert Johnston, Australian Pulp and Paper Institute; John Lee Jr., CH2M Hill; William Nicholson, Potlatch Corp.; and Raymond Wassel, National Research Council of the United States (Rapporteur).

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Page ix Contents Preface v Overview and Perspectives 1 Deanna J. Richards and Robert A. Frosch    The Extractive Industries 13 Preston S. Chiaro and G. Frank Joklik    Primary Materials Processing 27 Charles G. Carson III, Patrick R. Atkins, Elizabeth H. Mikols, Kenneth J. Martchek, and Ann B. Fullerton    Manufacturing 45 Robert A. Laudise and Thomas E. Graedel    The Electric Utility Industry 72 Ian M. Torrens and Kurt E. Yeager    The Pulp and Paper Industry 101 A. Douglas Armstrong, Keith M. Bentley, Sergio F. Galeano, Robert J. Olszewski, Gail A. Smith, and Jonathan R. Smith Jr.   Biographical Data 142

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