Index

A

Access to marine resources

cap and trade mechanisms for controlling, 111-112

community rights, 107

enforcement mechanisms, 112-113

individual rights, 107-108

land-based growth controls, 108-109

pricing of, 109-111

recommendations, 119

tools for controlling, 106

Accountability, 2, 89, 149

in federalist model of governance, 4

national interests in marine areas, 18-19

principles for governance and management, 16, 143

of regional councils, 98

Adaptive management, 15, 145

Agricultural runoff, 25

Alaska fisheries by-catch, 59-60, 73, 79

Aquaculture, 107

Assessment and valuation, 1-2, 141

active use services, 21

bequest use services, 21

challenges, 19, 27-28

contribution of coastal economy to GNP, 24

estimates of public's willingness to pay, 22

existence use services, 21

importance of, for policy making, 19-20

indirect use services, 21-22

long-term considerations in, 23

passive use services, 21, 22

problems of undervaluation, 22-23

recommendations, 119-120

techniques, 21-24

terminology, 20-21

trends data, 24-27

B

Barrier islands, 87

Bequests, 21

Bonds, 113, 161

Boundary-setting, 5, 12-13, 118, 143-144, 146

National Marine Sanctuaries program, 100

regional ecosystem perspective, 15

special assessment districts, 166

Brundtland Commission, 87



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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas Index A Access to marine resources cap and trade mechanisms for controlling, 111-112 community rights, 107 enforcement mechanisms, 112-113 individual rights, 107-108 land-based growth controls, 108-109 pricing of, 109-111 recommendations, 119 tools for controlling, 106 Accountability, 2, 89, 149 in federalist model of governance, 4 national interests in marine areas, 18-19 principles for governance and management, 16, 143 of regional councils, 98 Adaptive management, 15, 145 Agricultural runoff, 25 Alaska fisheries by-catch, 59-60, 73, 79 Aquaculture, 107 Assessment and valuation, 1-2, 141 active use services, 21 bequest use services, 21 challenges, 19, 27-28 contribution of coastal economy to GNP, 24 estimates of public's willingness to pay, 22 existence use services, 21 importance of, for policy making, 19-20 indirect use services, 21-22 long-term considerations in, 23 passive use services, 21, 22 problems of undervaluation, 22-23 recommendations, 119-120 techniques, 21-24 terminology, 20-21 trends data, 24-27 B Barrier islands, 87 Bequests, 21 Bonds, 113, 161 Boundary-setting, 5, 12-13, 118, 143-144, 146 National Marine Sanctuaries program, 100 regional ecosystem perspective, 15 special assessment districts, 166 Brundtland Commission, 87

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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas C Capacity to manage definition, 43 state government, 43-45 Case studies common themes, 69-70 decision-making style, 71-73 evaluation criteria, 49-50, 150 governance systems, 80-81, 83, 85-86 individual personality factors in, 77-78 leadership in, 85 lessons of, 84 program planning, 84-85 reward systems in, 76 selection criteria, 150 settings for, 48-49. See also specific setting significance of, 2-3, 48 Chaos, 83-84 Chesapeake Bay management, 26-27 effectiveness, 63-64, 77 fishing license program, 113-114 historical development, 62-63 Clean Air Act, 44, 55 Clean Water Act, 44 Clean water districts, 114-115 Climate, 17 Coast Guard, U. S., 14, 139 Coastal Zone Management Program, 88 California case study, 54, 55 opportunities for improvement, 99, 147 state initiatives, 41, 44, 45 structure and function, 29-30, 108, 139 Coherent system of governance and management in case studies, 2-3 characteristics of, 83 efforts toward, 88 funding oversight, 149 goals, 12, 13-14, 137 implementation, 148-149 lack of, 2, 4, 9-10, 46, 82-83, 89, 117, 137, 140 National Marine Council for, 91-94, 99 organizational structure for, 89 recommendations for, 5, 118-119 regional conflicts, 8-9 role of regional marine councils, 96 use of existing programs, 6, 99 Compensation for damages, 104-106 Complex systems, 71-73 Comprehensive conservation and management plan, 100 Conflict resolution economic valuation issues, 22 principles for governance and management, 16, 145 regional marine councils for, 96-97 resource use conflicts, 103-106 shortcomings of current system, 117, 140 Contracts/contracting, 97 Creativity and innovation, 16, 78, 84, 89, 94, 146 D Decision-making style, 71-73, 84 Department of Defense, U. S., 14, 139 Department of State, U.S., 139 E Economic policy challenges for stewardship, 1, 8 consideration of resource preservation, 23 current inadequacies, 9-10 environmental policy linkages, 46 offshore oil and gas leases, 36-38 pricing of access to marine resources, 109-111 principles for governance and management, 16 single-purpose approach to management, 9, 46 sustainable development, 10, 15 valuation of coastal resources for, 19-20, 23 Efficiency of management, 16, 143 Enforcement of regulations, 112-113, 120 Environmental impact statements, 90

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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas Environmental policy cap and trade mechanisms, 111-112 challenges for stewardship, 1, 8 consideration of resource preservation, 23 current inadequacies, 9-10, 12 economic policy linkages, 46 economic valuation issues, 23-24 fisheries regulation, 38-41 goals, 87 management tools, 7 marine and coastal protected areas, 104 offshore oil and gas regulation, 37-38, 41-42 pollution tax, 163 regional ecosystem perspective, 15 single-purpose approach to management, 9, 46 state trends, 45 sustainable development, 10, 15 zoning as tool of, 104 Environmental Protection Agency authority and responsibility, 14, 139 Chesapeake Bay management, 62, 63 future role, 101 Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project, 68 Environmental quality economic valuation issues, 23, 24-27 estimates of public's willingness to pay for, 22 Gulf of Maine fisheries, 57 system interactions in, 26-27 threats to, 11-12, 17 threats to fisheries, 38 trends, 2, 24-27, 141 unique features of marine ecology, 17-18 Equity, 16, 142 Estuaries definition, 33 ecological significance, 33 management authority, 33-35 See also National Estuary Program Eutrophication, 25 Exclusive Economic Zone, 24 definition, 12 international agreements, 19 state-level initiatives, 29, 30 Externalities, 28, 104 F Federalist model, 4, 89-90 advantages, 98-99 distinctive features, 90 Fisheries, 11 access rights, 106, 107-108 Alaska fisheries by-catch, 59-60 buy-out programs, 110-111 current inadequacies in management of, 101-102 ecosystem threats, 38 effects of overfishing, 57 licensing for use of, 107, 109-110, 113-114 limitations on harvest, 107-108 moratoria, 148 ocean ecology, 18, 33 opportunities for improvement, 102 regulation in sanctuary areas, 32-33 regulatory structures and policies, 38-41, 43, 95, 100 taxation, 162-163 trends, 12, 24-25 valuation, 22, 24-25, 38 See also Gulf of Maine fisheries; Maine lobster fishery Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 38-40, 57, 58, 95 Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, 3, 79 community support, 51 economic value of tourism, 20 enabling factors, 52-53 key features, 52 near-term challenges, 50 planning process, 51-52, 84-85 scope, 50 setting, 50 Funding clean water district fees, 114-115 for comprehensive conservation and management plans, 100

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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas for estuary improvement/maintenance, 100-101 fishing license program for, 113-114 innovative sources, 165-167 of marine area programs, 113 mechanisms, 161-165 oversight, 149 political context, 113 recommendations, 120 regional marine councils for coordination of, 96 G Georges Bank, 56-57 Goal-setting, 5, 118, 146 in organizations, 75 role of regional marine councils, 96 Governance of marine systems, 88 alternative models, 82-83, 85-86, 90-91 communication among stakeholders, 85 complexity of, 71-73 current inadequacies, 2, 4, 8-10, 12, 45, 94, 117, 139-141 current regulatory authority, 14 definition, 5, 137-138 federal role, 95 federalist approach, 4, 89-90 functioning in chaos, 83-84 goals for, 14-15, 89 human elements of, 73-74 leadership for, 85 models for improvement, 3 National Marine Council for, 90-94 ongoing nature of, 84 opportunities for improvement, 46-47 planning process, 84-85 prerequisites for improvement, 3, 4-5, 14, 117-118, 143-145, 146 principles for, 15-16, 70, 142-143 process for improving, 145-146 recommendations for, 118-119 reform attempts, 90 regional marine councils for, 94-98 stakeholder access to process of, 22 traditional bureaucratic model, 80-82 use of existing programs, 6, 88, 99-102, 147-148 Gulf of Maine fisheries, 3, 12, 20, 77-78 environmental threats, 57 governance regime, 57-58, 73, 77, 80, 83 management effectiveness, 58-59 physical characteristics, 56-57 I Implementation of change current indications, 136-137 Florida Keys marine sanctuary case study, 50-53 models for improvement, 3 new institutional structures for, 148 organizational morale and, 79-80 planning coordination, 148-149 political considerations, 77 process, 145-146 recommendations, 120 sources of initiatives, 3 urgency for, 8, 24, 137 use of existing programs, 6, 7, 99-102, 147-148 Individual action, 3 organizational functioning and, 74, 75 personality factors in management effectiveness, 77-78 reward systems, 75-76 Information management baseline environmental data, 66 communication among stakeholders, 85 for consensus building, 78-79 in governance case studies, 66-67, 68, 69 national coordination, 93 organizational attitude, 78-79 for Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project, 68, 69 Interest groups/stakeholders, 2 access and use enforcement activities, 112-113 access to governance process, 22 access to information, 78-79

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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas adversarial nature of current governance process, 9-10 collaborative problem-solving in Alaskan fisheries, 59-60 communication among, 85 contracts, 97 economic valuation of marine resources, 22 Gulf of Maine fisheries case study, 58-59 in National Marine Sanctuaries program, 33 in Oregon coastal management plan, 66 principles for governance and management, 16, 144, 146 resource use conflicts, 27-28 International context challenges for stewardship, 1, 8 marine management structures, 148 regional governance in, 15 International Maritime Organization, 155 Inventory of natural areas, 66 J Jet skis, 32 L Law of the Sea Convention, 19, 24, 148 Leadership, 85 Licensing, 107, 109-111 fishing license program, 113-114 Local and regional decision making, 3 California oil and gas leasing case study, 53-56 in Coastal Zone Management Program, 29-30 current inadequacies, 8-9 current state authority, 14, 29 current state regulation, 41-43 in federalist model of governance, 4, 89-90 under Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 39-40, 43 interstate collaboration for Chesapeake Bay management, 62-63 limitations of, 89 Maine lobster fishery case study, 60-62 National Marine Council model, 93, 94 in National Marine Sanctuaries program, 33 in planning of Florida Keys marine sanctuary, 52-53 recommendations for, 5, 118-119 regional ecosystem perspective, 15 regional marine councils for, 5, 6 state's capacity to manage, 43-45 Long Island Sound National Estuary Program, 25 effectiveness, 64 enabling factors, 65, 85 goals, 64 key features, 65 planning process, 64 M Maine lobster fishery, 78 management effectiveness, 62 management regime, 60-62, 76 Management of marine systems adaptability, 15 controlling access, 106-112 current inadequacies, 2, 8-10, 12, 117, 139-141 current regulatory authority, 14 definition, 5, 137-138 liability for damages, 104-105 managing conflicting uses, 103-106 models for improvement, 3 prerequisites for improvement, 3, 4-5, 117-118, 146 principles for, 15-16, 70, 142-143 recommendations for, 119-120 scope, 28-29 single-purpose approach, 9, 46, 139 state's capacity to manage, 43-45 for sustainability, 88 tools for. See Management tools unique challenges, 87-88 use of existing programs, 6, 99-102

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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas Management tools for controlling marine area access and use, 106-112 for enforcing access and use regulations, 112-113 need for, 12 recommendations, 5, 7, 119 for resolving conflicting uses, 103-106 selection, 103 types of, 103 Marine and coastal protected areas, 104 Marine environment, defined, 12-13, 138 Marine management area categories of, 147, 153-156 definition and characteristics, 13, 138, 147, 153 trends, 149 Military operations, 19, 139 Minerals Management Service, 14, 36, 139 California case study, 54-56, 101 Mississippi River, 25 Monitoring and evaluation, 5, 118, 146 for enforcing access and use regulations, 112, 120 management, 93, 149 marine management areas for, 154 regional marine council activities, 98 Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project, 68 Morale, 79-80 Moratoria, 148, 149 N National Environmental Policy Act, 37, 90 National Estuary Program, 14, 33-35, 88, 139, 148 effectiveness, 100 Long Island Sound case study, 64-65 opportunities for improvement, 100-101 National interest definition, 1-2, 141-142 federal responsibility for marine areas, 18-19, 88 in maritime environment, 142 mechanism for consideration and expression of, 88-89, 92-94 National Marine Council advantages, 98-99 authority, 91 Coastal Zone Management Program and, 99 fisheries management, 102 information management activities, 93 problem-identification and intervention, 91 rationale, 90-91 recommendations for, 5, 118-119 regional marine councils and, 95 structure and function, 5-6, 90, 91-94, 98, 102 National Marine Fisheries Service, 38-41, 139 in Alaskan fisheries management, 59, 60 Gulf of Maine governance, 57-59 in Maine lobster fisheries management, 62 National Marine Sanctuaries program, 3, 30-33 challenges, 33 objectives, 30-31, 147 opportunities for improvement, 99-100, 147 prospects for, 33 state initiatives, 42, 45 structure and operations, 30, 31-33, 88 National Marine Sanctuary program See also Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration authority and responsibility, 14, 138-139 Florida Keys marine sanctuary, 50-53 San Francisco Bay demonstration project, 66 National Park Service, 14, 139 Nitrogen, 64

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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas O Ocean dumping, 30 Oil and gas resources, 11 current inadequacies in management of, 101 management trends, 25 offshore leasing, 25, 148 opportunities for improved management of, 101 pollution compensation/liability, 105 regulatory environment, 36-38, 41, 42, 139 state management, 44-45 See also Southern California offshore oil and gas leasing Oregon coastal management effectiveness, 65, 80 enabling factors, 66 historical development, 65 key features, 66 planning and implementation, 65 public participation, 65, 66 Organizational and behavioral issues alternative governance models, 82-83, 85-86, 90-91 attitudes toward innovation and risk, 78 federalist model, 89-90 functioning in chaos, 83-84 information management, 78-79 institutional connectivity, 144-145 interactions, 73-74 leadership, 85 missions and goals, 75 morale, 79-80 personality factors in management effectiveness, 77-78 political processes, 76-77 problem-solving in complex systems, 71-73 requirements for successful management, 71 reward systems, 75-76 traditional bureaucratic governance models, 80-82 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 36-38 state use of, 44 P Political functioning, 76-77 Population trends, 11-12, 87 Private property rights, 2 for fisheries management, 106, 107 R Recreational activities, 11 estimates of public's willingness to pay for, 22 regulation in sanctuary areas, 32 trends, 24-25 valuation, 19, 20 Regional marine councils, 5, 6 advantages, 95, 98-99, 102 design, 94-95, 96 duration, 95 fisheries management, 102 rationale, 94, 95-96 recommendations for, 119 role of, 94-98, 101, 102 Regulatory environment adversarial, 9 coastal authority, 11 current inadequacies, 2, 8-9, 12, 13-14, 28 current institutional authorities, 14, 138-139 fisheries management, 38-41 management tools, 7, 103 marine management areas, 13 memorandum of agreement for waiving regulations, 97 oil and gas industry, 36-38, 41, 42, 53-56 resistance to innovation, 16 resource use enforcement mechanisms, 112-113 state initiatives, 41-43 trends among states, 43-45 See also specific governmental authority; specific legislation Resource use, 3 access controls, 106-112

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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas Alaska fisheries by-catch case study, 59-60 cap and trade mechanisms for controlling, 111-112 challenges for stewardship, 1, 8, 11-12, 28-29 coastal authority, 11 compensation/liability for damages, 104-105 current management inadequacies, 8-9, 12, 139, 140 decision making in National Marine Council, 92, 93-94 enforcement mechanisms, 112-113 as environmental threat, 17 estimates of public's willingness to pay for, 22 Gulf of Maine management case study, 56-59 individual and community rights, 106-108 Maine lobster fishery case study, 60-62 management tools, 7 managing conflicts in, 103-106 Oregon coastal management, 65-66 prenegotiated mitigation, 105-106 pricing mechanisms for controlling, 109-111 principles for governance and management, 16, 143 scope, 10-11 stakeholder conflicts, 27-28, 140 taxation, 162-163 tragedy of the commons, 23-24 trends, 24-27 valuation issues, 21-24 vs. resource preservation, 23 See also Oil and gas resources Reward systems, 75-76, 77, 78 Risk assessment, 15 Risk-taking, 78 S San Francisco Bay demonstration project, 66-68, 76 Santa Monica Bay restoration project, 68-69, 76-77, 79, 83, 85 Scientific information, 5, 118 principles for governance and management, 15, 143, 146 Sensitive sea areas, 155 Shellfish industry, 25, 114 taxation, 162-163 Shoreline Management Act of 1971, 108 Southern California offshore oil and gas leasing, 73, 75, 78, 79-80 enabling factors, 55-56 historical context, 53-54 key features, 54-55 management successes, 54 Stakeholders. See Interest groups/stakeholders State Ocean Plans, 148 Sustainable development/use benefits of, 142 economic valuation issues, 24-25 goals, 87 implications for management, 88 national commitment to, 10 performance standards, 15 tragedy of the commons, 23-24 T Taxes, 113, 161-164, 166-167 Timeliness, 16 Tourism, 11 economic valuation, 20 taxation, 162 Tragedy of the commons, 23-24 Training, 98 Transparency, 16, 144 Transportation, 11, 32, 139 Treaties and agreements, 19, 24 U User fees, 109-111 W Waste management, 25, 106 nitrogen release, 64

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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas Wetlands, 106 trends, 25 Wildlife habitat, 11 fisheries regulation, 38-41 ocean ecology, 17-18 trends, 25-26 Z Zoning, 7, 52, 104