Federally supported research career paths often include efforts to obtain the National Research Service Awards (NRSA) predoctoral and postdoctoral training fellowships (e.g., T32, F31, F32), followed by career development awards (e.g., K01, K02, K08, etc.), and general research grant funding mechanisms (e.g., R29, R01, R37). These are available through NIH; two institutes, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), use these awards for addiction researchers. Each program has its own set of requirements, duration of support, and funding (see Box 7.1).

BOX 7.1 Description of Awards

F30 (Individual Predoctoral National Research Service Awards for M.D./Ph.D. Fellowships)—The fellowship provides support for both medical school and predoctoral Ph.D. training. The maximum duration is 6 years (4 years if being used to cover tuition). A stipend of $10,008 is provided to cover living expenses.

F31 (Individual Predoctoral National Research Service Awards for Fellows)—The fellowship award provides up to 5 years' support for predoctoral students enrolled in a doctoral degree program. A stipend of $10,008 to cover living expenses is included. The fellowship also requires that the awardee work with an approved mentor or sponsor actively doing research in the area.

F32 (Individual Postdoctoral National Research Service Awards for Fellows)—The award provides up to 3 years of aggregate support for scientists who have completed a degree with the goal of broadening their background or extending their research potential. In FY 1994, the average NIH F32 was $24,500 with the duration depending on the number of years of relevant postdoctoral experience possessed by the candidate. Awardees must pursue their research training on a full-time basis (40 hours/week) with research clinicians confining clinical duties within the training experience. Furthermore, fellows incur a service obligation of 1 month for each month of support in the first 12 months of postdoctoral NSRA support.

T32 (National Research Service Award Institutional Research Training Grant)—The grant provides up to 5 years of renewable support to institutions for various levels of training, including predoctoral research training, postdoctoral research training, clinical research training, and short-term research training for health professional students.

T35 (National Research Service Award Short-Term Institutional Research Training Grant)—The grant provides support to institutions offering research training opportunities to individuals or students during off-quarters or summers



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