Mechanisms of somatic dependence established (locus coeruleus and other brainstem nuclei); predicted use of clonidine or other alpha-adrenergic drugs for treatment of somatic withdrawal.
Development of a model wherein animals self-administer nicotine to blood levels approximating those of human cigarette smokers.
Models for examination of "inhaled" nicotine.
Discovery of mechanisms by which opioids activate brain reward pathways (via VTA and NAc).
Modulation of brain reward pathways by kappa agonists and antagonists; potential role of kappa agonists in blocking opioid reinforcement.
Prevention and/or reversal of opioid tolerance and dependence by NMDA antagonists, CCK antagonists, delta receptor agonists, and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.
Substantial progress on molecular adaptations produced by acute or chronic opioids in the brain.
Development of robust animal models of cocaine and amphetamine self-administration.
Experimental evaluation of selective dopamine-subtype-selective agonists, antagonists, partial agonists, and other therapies as treatments for cocaine dependence.
Demonstration that the neurochemical consequences of cocaine self-administration are different from involuntary injection of cocaine, suggesting different transmitter pathways involved in anticipation of reward versus behavioral response.
Development of several genetically stable strains of high- or low-alcohol-preferring rats from common outbred animal stock.