• Approval of LAAM (levomethadyl acetate, Orlaam®) as 2 to 3 times per week treatment for opioid dependence.

  • Evaluation of long-term methadone or LAAM therapy in reducing illicit opioid drug use in many patients.

  • Evaluation of buprenorphine and other partial agonist compounds as safer replacements for methadone treatment.


  • Evaluation of catalytic antibodies for degrading or inactivating cocaine.

  • Expanded evaluation of selective dopamine, serotonin, and opioid agonists and antagonists for cocaine addiction.

  • Expanded examination of the concept of agonist replacement strategies and specific medications.


  • Naltrexone (ReVia™) approved for treatment of alcoholism in the United States.

  • Acamprosate (Aotal®) approved for treatment of alcoholism in Europe, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate approved for treatment of alcoholism in Italy.

  • Expanded research into use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists, serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drug combinations, and other pharmacological treatments.

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