• Evaluation of joint pharmacological and behavioral strategies for cocaine and opioid dependence.

  • Latent transition analysis (LTA) allows researchers to estimate and test models of stage-sequential development, such as the predictive effect of early caffeine use on subsequent drug use experience.

  • Prevention strategies for adolescents and older youth have shown the value of delaying early initiation of drug use through school-based education and resistance-skills training and with increased availability of social networks, athletic programs, and neighborhood support activities for older children.

NICOTINE

  • Characterization of the reinforcing aspects of nicotine in humans with appreciation of both positive reinforcers (e.g., cognitive effects, mood enhancement, weight control) and negative reinforcers (avoidance of nicotine withdrawal).

  • Establishment of environmental tobacco smoke as a health hazard, with implications for air quality control in the workplace and public places.

  • Successful patient-treatment matching studies (e.g., higher-dose nicotine replacement therapy for heavier smokers, supportive treatments for dysphoric smokers).

  • Demonstration of differential etiology of smoking for men and women and gender differences in smoking cessation.

STIMULANTS

  • Prenatal and other developmental exposure to cocaine may be influenced by both direct toxic effects and indirect effects of environment (e.g., parental functioning).

  • Cocaine appears to increase the vulnerability of the exposed child to effects of a poor caretaking environment.

ALCOHOL

  • Long-term follow-up study of behavioral effects of alcohol on young men with alcoholic fathers versus nonalcoholic fathers confirmed that a low-intensity response to alcohol at age 20 is associated with 4-times greater likelihood of future alcoholism.

  • Twin studies show that vulnerability to alcoholism is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.



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