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Evaluation of joint pharmacological and behavioral strategies for cocaine and opioid dependence.
Latent transition analysis (LTA) allows researchers to estimate and test models of stage-sequential development, such as the predictive effect of early caffeine use on subsequent drug use experience.
Prevention strategies for adolescents and older youth have shown the value of delaying early initiation of drug use through school-based education and resistance-skills training and with increased availability of social networks, athletic programs, and neighborhood support activities for older children.
Characterization of the reinforcing aspects of nicotine in humans with appreciation of both positive reinforcers (e.g., cognitive effects, mood enhancement, weight control) and negative reinforcers (avoidance of nicotine withdrawal).
Establishment of environmental tobacco smoke as a health hazard, with implications for air quality control in the workplace and public places.
Successful patient-treatment matching studies (e.g., higher-dose nicotine replacement therapy for heavier smokers, supportive treatments for dysphoric smokers).
Demonstration of differential etiology of smoking for men and women and gender differences in smoking cessation.
Prenatal and other developmental exposure to cocaine may be influenced by both direct toxic effects and indirect effects of environment (e.g., parental functioning).
Cocaine appears to increase the vulnerability of the exposed child to effects of a poor caretaking environment.
Long-term follow-up study of behavioral effects of alcohol on young men with alcoholic fathers versus nonalcoholic fathers confirmed that a low-intensity response to alcohol at age 20 is associated with 4-times greater likelihood of future alcoholism.
Twin studies show that vulnerability to alcoholism is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.