that could increase and sustain the number and quality of mentors; several different efforts are needed.

To enable appropriate mentoring experiences, the committee recommends that:

  • Ph.D. programs in the behavioral and social sciences should be included among the degrees eligible for M.D./Ph.D. (MSTP) support;

  • NIDA and NIAAA should increase the number of mentors by promoting interdisciplinary research through the establishment of funding mechanisms for mentoring teams composed of investigators from different disciplines in the Academic Centers of Excellence programs;

  • NIDA and NIAAA should emphasize innovative mentoring programs through the K05, K07, and other K award mechanisms; and

  • NIDA and NIAAA should consider reviving the Career Teacher Training Program.

Although the focus of this report is on addiction research, the issues of treatment and research are often intertwined. Faculty who have expertise in treating addicted individuals can stimulate faculty who have expertise in conducting basic or applied research on addiction. Likewise, the availability and quality of treatment are dependent on innovative research findings. Furthermore, many graduate students, medical students, postdoctoral students, and medical residents will be exposed to the field of addiction research while being supervised in treatment settings.

The committee recommends that:

  • All treatment professionals should have some knowledge of basic neuroscience and how alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs work on brain pathways, influence behavior, and interact with diverse conditions. Treatment professionals should include physicians, nurses, clinical psychologists, social workers, drug abuse peer counselors, and other health care providers who work in conjunction with one another in treating patients with an addictive disease;

  • Continuing education courses to update treatment professionals' knowledge base on addiction should be instituted systematically and widely; and

  • Competence-based documentation of treatment professionals' knowledge base on addiction should be sought in licensing and recertification examinations.

The committee identified several problems with the mechanisms that support careers in addiction research. These include insufficient numbers of traineeships and fellowships, insufficient research career development and sustaining awards, varying applicant success rates, and a low percentage of training support

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