TABLE 4-10 Estimated Ambient Air Concentrations of Various Pollutants That Might Be Associated with Emissions from Cement Kilns That Burn Hazardous Waste after Compliance with MACT (All concentrations are annual averages in units of micrograms per cubic meter.)a



Standard Deviation




2.5 × 10-4

1.9 × 10-4

2.0 × 10-4

1.3 × 10-5 to 2.2 × 10-3


1.6 × 10-9

1.3 × 10-9

1.6 × 10-9

9.2 × 10-11 to 1.2 × 10-8

Particulate matter




3.2 × 10-2 to 4.8

a Based on the MACT emission limits that were proposed in April 1996.

b PCDD/F is the toxic equivalent of the sum of the polycholorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

Results from Environmental Monitoring Studies Around Incineration Facilities

Mathematical models and calculations have utility as tools for prediction and correlation of measurements in the environmental sciences. But uncertainties often remain after modeling because of the complexity of the environmental problem being modeled and the necessity to make assumptions throughout the modeling process.

Monitoring is an alternative to modeling environmental pollutants in the vicinity of incinerators. Also it provides a means of assessing a model's reliability. Monitoring can be used to assess local concentrations directly and, thus, avoid some uncertainty. Although environmental monitoring studies have been conducted around waste incinerators, some of the toxicants released by incinerators persist on a regional scale, rather than only on a local scale. Modeling and monitoring complement each other. Monitoring is useful for calibrating and validating models. Models are useful for interpolating and extrapolating monitoring data over space and time.

Ambient air is the most-common environmental medium that is monitored. For example, EPA (1991b) carried out a detailed study of ambient air quality in the vicinity of a municipal solid-waste (MSW) combustor in Rutland, VT. This facility burned 240 tons of waste a day; an electrostatic precipitator and wet scrubber were used to control particulate emissions and acid-gas emissions, respectively. In the investigation, air-dispersion modeling was conducted to determine locations for ambient monitoring and environmental sampling analyses for

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement