Index

A

Acidic gases and aerosols, 2, 23, 50, 51-52, 104, 110

air pollution control devices, 42, 43, 45-46, 49, 51, 103

fly ash, 64-65

Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT),

risk assessments, 113, 134-139, 166, 178

standards, 113, 188, 193

urban areas, 138

see also Hydrogen chloride;

Nitrogen and

nitrogen oxides;

Sulfates

Accidents, see Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions

Adolescents, 139

Advocacy, 13, 21, 193, 209-210, 211-212, 218-

African-Americans, 162, 231

Age factors, human, 118, 123, 126, 127, 128, 175

adolescents, 139

elderly persons, 132, 140, 162, 193

food contamination effects, 90

particulates, 132, 133

see also Children;

Elderly persons

Age of incinerators, 8, 38, 42, 126, 130, 184, 188, 197-198, 214, 215, 234

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)

arsenic, 88

cadmium, 86, 141-142

dioxins and furans, 93

lead, 91

local population studies, 120

mercury, 90

risk assessments, 116, 141-142

Superfund sites, 200

Agriculture, see Rural areas

AIDS, 24

Air dispersion coefficients, 6, 70, 76-77, 99, 132

Air-injection systems, 2-3, 40, 46, 48, 66-69 (passim)

Air pollution, general, 4-5, 14, 71, 109, 248

air-dispersion coefficients, 6, 70, 76-77, 99, 132

cadmium, 86, 87, 106-107

dioxins, 93-94, 95, 96

hazardous waste, 22, 23

lead, 91, 92, 106

multimedia transport models, 79-80, 108-109, 255

plant contamination and, 77, 107

process emissions, 1, 2-4, 50-56, 211

see also Air pollution control devices;

Ambient pollutant concentrations;

specific pollutants



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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Index A Acidic gases and aerosols, 2, 23, 50, 51-52, 104, 110 air pollution control devices, 42, 43, 45-46, 49, 51, 103 fly ash, 64-65 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), risk assessments, 113, 134-139, 166, 178 standards, 113, 188, 193 urban areas, 138 see also Hydrogen chloride; Nitrogen and nitrogen oxides; Sulfates Accidents, see Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions Adolescents, 139 Advocacy, 13, 21, 193, 209-210, 211-212, 218- African-Americans, 162, 231 Age factors, human, 118, 123, 126, 127, 128, 175 adolescents, 139 elderly persons, 132, 140, 162, 193 food contamination effects, 90 particulates, 132, 133 see also Children; Elderly persons Age of incinerators, 8, 38, 42, 126, 130, 184, 188, 197-198, 214, 215, 234 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) arsenic, 88 cadmium, 86, 141-142 dioxins and furans, 93 lead, 91 local population studies, 120 mercury, 90 risk assessments, 116, 141-142 Superfund sites, 200 Agriculture, see Rural areas AIDS, 24 Air dispersion coefficients, 6, 70, 76-77, 99, 132 Air-injection systems, 2-3, 40, 46, 48, 66-69 (passim) Air pollution, general, 4-5, 14, 71, 109, 248 air-dispersion coefficients, 6, 70, 76-77, 99, 132 cadmium, 86, 87, 106-107 dioxins, 93-94, 95, 96 hazardous waste, 22, 23 lead, 91, 92, 106 multimedia transport models, 79-80, 108-109, 255 plant contamination and, 77, 107 process emissions, 1, 2-4, 50-56, 211 see also Air pollution control devices; Ambient pollutant concentrations; specific pollutants

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Air pollution control devices, 3, 10-11, 17, 24, 27, 30, 31-32, 34, 35, 42-50, 68-69, 163-164, 166, 179 acid gases and aerosols, 42, 43, 45-46, 49, 51, 103 ash, 64, 65 best practices, 67 carbon absorption, 42, 47, 49, 52-53, 56, 66, 67, 188-189 dioxins, 3, 42, 47-48, 52, 54-56, 58-59, 62, 188 dry-sorbent injection, 3, 45-46, 65, 66, 67 foreign countries, 8, 22, 23, 214-215 Europe, 42, 47, 48, 49 fugitive emissions, 35, 63, 187, 191, 251 furans, 42, 47, 49, 54-56, 62 hazardous wastes, 23, 43, 45, 49 historical perspectives, 63 hydrogen chloride, 3, 45, 49, 51, 55, 56, 66 information on, 4, 69-70 lead, 53-54 medical wastes, 203, 204, 215 mercury, metals, 3, 43, 63 municipal solid waste, 21, 42-46 (passim), 55-56, 215, 301 nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 42, 46-47, 49, 52, 66, 67 occupation exposures due to, particulate matter, 42, 43-45, 47, 51, 54, 63, 103 standards, 188, 194, 195, 203, 204, 205, 215; see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) sulfates, 3, 45, 49, 51, 55, 66 temperature factors, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 53, 55 see also Carbon absorption; Dry-sorbent injection; Electrostatic precipitators; Emission monitoring; Fabric filters; Filters; Wet scrubbers Allergies, 138-139 Aluminum, 31, 55, 127, 137, 164 Ambient pollutant concentrations, 1, 5, 15, 75, 79, 80, 82, 98-110, 113, 179 carbon monoxide, 97 data collection, 98-100, 180 dioxins, 100-110 (passim), 172, 179 epidemiological studies, 123 furans, 100-107 (passim), 109-110, 179 hazardous waste emissions, 98-103 health effects, 4, 11, 179, 180, 181 hydrogen chloride, 97 lead, 91, 92, 100, 102 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), monitoring, 103-110 nitrogen oxides, 136 particulates, 100, 101, 102, 103, 108, 131- standards, 2, 5, 91, 97, 155, 189 American Cancer Society, 133-134 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 49, 69, 188, 208-209, 303 Animals and animal studies, 15, 73-74, 75, 81, 94, 110, 115, 116, 128-129, 163 arsenic, 151 cadmium, 141 carbon monoxide, 140 dioxins, 157, 158, 159, 172, 174 hydrogen chloride, risk assessments, 136-137 medical wastes defined, 200 PAHs, 160-161 PCBs, 159 sulfates, 139 see also Dairy products; Fish; Meat Antimony, 196 Arches, furnaces, 41 Arsenic, 50, 87-88, 109, 127, 151, 153-154, 196, 197 Ash, 14, 50, 51, 63-65 acidic, 64-65 air pollution control devices, 64, 65 bottom ash, 2, 3, 14, 17, 31, 34, 35, 53, 55, 63, 65, 66, 187 design of facilities and, 4 dioxins and furans, 55, 109 fly ash, 3, 31, 37, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 63-64, 65, 66, 163, 164, 187 epidemiological studies, 127-128 lead, 53, 54 occupational exposures, 64, 207-208 output controls, 30 standards, 187, 191, 207-208 Asthma, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 162 ATSDR, see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Attitudes, see Psychological factors; Public opinion Autoclaving, 26 Auxiliary burners, 3, 41, 49, 66, 67, 301

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH B Bag houses, see Fabric filters Batteries, 31, 32, 64, 67, 85, 91, 192 Belgium, 23 Benzo(a)pyrene, 161 Beryllium, 50, 155, 156, 157, 196, 197 Best practices, 67, 186 see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Bill boarding, 214-215 Biological markers, 113, 114, 118, 119-120, 142, 181 Biological waste, see Hazardous waste; Medical waste Black persons, see African-Americans Blood, see Hematology Boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs), 13, 17, 64, 303 hazardous waste, 23, 24, 41, 193, 194-195 national statistics, 18 standards, 193, 194-195 Bottom ash, see Ash Bronchitis, 133, 138-139, 156 Bull noses, 41 C Cadmium, 3, 6, 32, 50, 65, 86, 87, 98, 106-107, 109 food contamination, 86, 87, 98, 143 health effects, epidemiological studies, 127 exposure, 6, 85-87, 165, 168 exposure pathways, 82, 98, 140-142, 143 risk assessments, 113, 140-142, 143, 144 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), medical waste, 26, 201, 202, 203, 205 occupational exposures, 165, 168 soil contamination, 85, 86, 87, 106 standards other than MACT, 190 California Air Resources Board, 182 Canada, 193 arsenic ingestion, 88 dioxin ingestion, 94 hazardous waste, 23 Cancer and carcinogenicity, 162, 163 arsenic, 151, 152, 153 beryllium, 155, 156 cadmium, 144 chromium, 151, 152 dioxins, 124, 157, 174 epidemiological studies, 124-126, 128 lead, 143, 144, 147 PAHs, 160 respiratory, 124, 125, 151, 155, 156, 157 risk assessments, 114, 116, 130, 143, 144, 147, 151-157 (passim), 162, 163 Carbon absorption, 42, 47, 49, 52-53, 56, 66, 67, 188-189 Carbon dioxide, 2, 31, 37, 50, 97, 309 Carbon monoxide (CO), 2, 31, 37, 49, 50, 97, 98, 110 incomplete combustion, 56 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), medical waste, 200-204 (passim), 303 off-normal operation, 60, 62, 303, 305, 307-309 risk assessments, 113, 139-140, 178 standards, 97, 113, 184, 191, 192, 195, 197, 199-205 (passim), 214, 305, 308 Carcinogenicity, see Cancer and carcinogenicity Cardiovascular effects, 128 arsenic, 153 cadmium, 143 carbon monoxide, 139, 140 lead, 144, 147, 175 mercury, 148, 149 Cement kilns, see Kilns CEMS, see Continuous emission monitoring systems CERCLA-Superfund sites, see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Chemicals and chemical waste, see Hazardous waste; specific chemicals Children, 94, 123, 162, 193, 225 acidic aerosols, 139 adolescents, 139 cadmium, 141 environmental justice, 231 hand-to-mouth behavior, 162 infants, 132, 161-162, 174 lead poisoning, 91, 142, 146, 174, 175, 176 respiratory effects, 121, 122, 132, 136, 138, 139

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Chlorine, 3, 23, 31, 32, 55, 194, 196, 198, 199 see also Hydrogen chloride Chlorobenzenes, 55, 62, 104, 126, 309 Chlorofluorocarbons, 31 Chlorophenols, 62, 93, 104, 119, 126, 305, 308, 309 Chromium, 50, 109, 148, 151, 152, 196, 197 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 134, 155 see also Emphysema Cities, see Urban areas Civil Rights Act, 232-233 Clean Air Act, 184-185, 186-187, 188, 193, 194, 211 see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Clean Water Act, 184, 193 Combustion processes and efficiency, 2-3, 4, 17, 31, 24, 37-41, 66-67, 68, 183, 195 best practices, 67, 186 dioxins, 55, 56, 58, 61, 62 mercury vaporization, 53, 66 municipal solid waste, 21-22 operations factors, 48-49 sizing of furnace, 40 standards, 187-188, 195 turbulence, 2, 3, 38, 66-67 uncontrolled, 21-22 see also Incomplete combustion; Temperature factors; Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions Composting, 17, 19, 20, 21, 27, 28-29, 30, 32 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund), Computer applications, 5 continuous emission monitors, 8-9, 211 epidemiological mapping and smoothing, 129 see also Databases; Internet Continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS), Control of emissions, see Air pollution control devices Convective heat transfer, 24, 42, 74 Court cases, see Litigation Criteria pollutants, see Carbon monoxide; Nitrogen dioxide; Particulates; Photochemical oxidants; Sulfates Crushing, Cytogenic effects, 125-126, 149 D Dairy products, 5, 81, 104-106, 107 dioxins, 5, 94, 95, 96, 104-106, 107 Databases, 6, 56-57, 181, 196 stack emission rate information, 56-57 Data collection, 3-4, 9, 49, 196 ambient pollutant concentrations, 98-100, 180 health effects, 7, 69-70 medical wastes, 203, 204, 205, 206 regulatory requirements, 194, 203, 204, 205, 206, 212, 214-216 upset conditions, 3-4, 9, 181 see also Epidemiology; Information dissemination; Monitoring; Risk assessments Department of Health and Human Services, see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Dermal absorption and effects, 80, 81, 111, 114 arsenic, 151, 153 beryllium, 156 cadmium, 87 chromium, 148, 151 dioxins, 157, 174 lead, 142 mercury, 147-148, 149, 150 PAHs, 160 risk assessments, 117, 136, 142, 147-148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 156, 159 Design of facilities, 1-2, 4, 27, 37-38, 39-41, 59, 68-69, 194, 259-260 acid gas scrubbers, 45-46 ash production, 4 committee charge, 13 fugitive emissions, 63 health effects and, 166(n.a), 169, 179 lead in ash, 53, 54 municipal solid waste, 29-30 particulate matter reduction, 51 sizing, 29-30 transport pathways and, 76 see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Destruction and removal efficiency, 3, 55, 66, 195, 305

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Developmental effects, human dioxins, 158 lead, 144, 146 mercury, 148, 149 PAHs, 160 PCBs, 159 sensitive populations, 161-162 Diet, see Food contamination Dioxins, 2, 31, 50, 50-56, 93-94, 95, 96 air pollution control devices, 3, 42, 47-48, 54-56, 58-59, 52, 62, 188 ambient concentration levels, 100-110 (passim), 172, 179 ash, 55, 109 biomarkers, 119 combustion processes, 55, 56, 58, 61, 62, 193 dairy products, 5, 94, 95, 96, 104-106, 107 emission monitoring, 39, 58, 62, 68, 304 fish, 5, 95, 96, 111 flue gases, 55, 301, 302 food contamination, 5, 82, 94-97, 98, 111, 162, 169 health effects, 6, 7, 166, 179 animal studies, 157, 158, 159, 172, 174 carcinogenicity, 124, 157, 174 blood, 106, 157 epidemiological studies, 123, 124, 126-127, 128, 157 exposure, 4-5, 6, 82, 91, 93-97, 98, 106, 109, 110-111 occupational exposure, 6, 124, 155, 157, 163, 164, 166, 171 risk assessments, 113, 114, 155, 157-159, 166, 169, 171-174, 180, 181, 253-254 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), medical waste, 26, 200-205 (passim) municipal solid waste, 55-56, 82, 104-106 off-normal operation, 61, 301-308 rural areas, 94, 104-106 sediment contamination, 96 soil contamination, 94, 95, 96, 105, 107, 109 stack emission rate information, 58-59, 62 standards, other than MACT, 188, 194, 199 transport pathways, 75, 93-95, 98, 110-111 urban diets, 94 vegan diets, 162 vegetation, 94, 95, 96 water contamination, 95, 96 Dispersion of emissions, 4, 5, 6, 34, 57, 70, 71, 73, 75, 76, 79, 98, 103-104, 181 air dispersion coefficients, 6, 70, 76-77, 99, 132 local factors, 76-77, 94, 98 Dose-response analysis, 13, 116, 117, 118, 130 arsenic, 153-154 cadmium, 143 chromium, 152 dioxins, 172 hydrogen chloride, 137 lead, 144-145 mercury, 149-150 uncertainty, 116, 117, 118, 246, 248, 250, 254-257 Dow Chemical Company, 60 Dry-sorbent injection, 3, 45-46, 65, 66, 67 E Economic factors, 1, 9, 10, 217-218, 219-220, 223-225, 226, 227, 228, 230-231, 242-243, 244 compensation measures, 10, 183, 225, 241-242, 244 composting, 29 emission monitoring, 116 hazardous waste, 22, 23-24, 193 Maximum Achievable Control Technology, 187, 188 municipal solid waste, 21, 29, 221, 224 property values, 9, 218, 219, 223, 225, 226, 227, 230, 232, 239, 240, 241, 242, 247 recycling, 29 regulatory compliance, 210; see also Fines and penalties risk assessments, 116, 253 see also Environmental justice Education and training, see Professional education and training; Public education Efficiency, see Combustion processes and efficiency; Destruction and removal efficiency Elderly persons, 132, 140, 162, 193 see also Environmental justice

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), 3, 42, 43, 44, 49, 52, 58-59, 103 best practices, 67 off-normal operations, 62, 304-305, 306 worker exposure due to, 164-165, 168 Emission-control devices, see Air pollution control devices Emission monitoring, 4, 8, 49, 67, 68, 103-110 best practices, 67 continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS), databases, 56-57 dioxins, 39, 58, 62, 68, 304 flue gases, 49, 56-62, 70, 188, 194, 301 inspection of facilities, 48-49, 67, 184, 194, 199, 204, 206, 210-213 medical wastes, 203, 204, 205 particulates, 45 regulatory issues, 8-9, 49, 68, 203, 204, 205, 211, 214-215, 303 risk assessments, 116 stack emission rate information, 56-62, 70 standards, 188, 194, 195, 199, 203, 204, 205 startup conditions, 9, 60, 61 see also Performance testing Employee issues, see Occupational exposures; Professional education and training Emphysema, 133 Energy recovery, 12, 26, 27, 41-42, 219, 308-309 hazardous waste, 23-24, 41, 193, 194-195, 199 medical waste, 42 municipal solid waste, 18, 21, 22, 38, 41, 109 see also Boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs); Kilns; Steam generation Environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 27, 183-184, 189 ambient pollutant concentrations, databases, 98-100 batteries, 32 composting, 28 continuous emission monitors, 8-9, 215 dispersion models, 76 feed preparation and feeding practices, 36 hazardous air pollutants, 184-185, 193 hazardous waste, 22, 23, 57, 64, 186, 193, 194, 196, 213 health effects, 7, 111 enforcement, 210, 212, 213-214 lead, 91, 147 medical waste, 200, 202 mercury, 8, 53, 89, 215 municipal solid waste, 18, 21, 186-187, 188-192, 215, 305 occupational exposures, 207, 208, 214, 216 off-normal operation, 60-61 particulates, 84-85, 132, 133 risk assessments, 111, 116 stack emission rate information, 56, 57-58, 59 uncertainty analysis, 215 see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Epidemiology, 6, 7, 15, 112-113, 114, 115, 120-129, 179, 181, 248, 252, 253 beryllium, 155 biological markers, 113, 114, 118, 119-120, 142, 181 cancer, 124-126, 128 dioxins, 123, 124, 126-127, 128, 157 furans, 123, 127, 128 gender factors, 120, 123, 128, 133 hydrogen chloride, 122-123 lead, 127-128, 146 local, 120-126 medical wastes, 122, 123 municipal solid waste, 122-123, 124, 125-127 respiratory effects, 120-123, 124, 125, 132, 133 sulfates, 121, 122-123, 133 Risk assessments Europe, 23, 106 air pollution control devices, 42, 47, 48, 49 Exposure and exposure pathways, 4-6, 7, 15, 71, 72, 73, 80, 81-82, 114, 169, 181 arsenic, 87-88, 151, 153-154 beryllium, 155 biological markers, 113, 114, 119-120, 142, 181 cadmium, 6, 82, 85-87, 98, 140-143, 143, 165, 168 committee methodology, 13, 14 dioxins, 4-5, 6, 82, 91, 93-97, 98, 106, 109, 110-111 epidemiological findings, 114, 115, 126, 127

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH furans, 4-5, 93-97, 111 lead, 6, 91, 92, 98, 144-145, 146 local factors, 8, 98, 111, 114, 117, 159 mercury, 4-5, 6, 82, 89-90, 98, 106, 107, 147-148, 149-150 metals, general, 4, 6, 82, 128, 140-155 (passim) models, 81-82, 94, 111 PCBs, 159 particulate matter, 72, 82-85, 98, 110, 131-132 regional factors, 110, 114, 117 risk assessment, 111, 112, 116-117, 131-132, 250, 252-254 stack emission rate information, 58 see also Ambient pollutant concentrations; Dermal absorption and effects; Dose-response analysis; Food contamination; Inhalation; Occupational exposures; Risk assessments; Soil contamination; Water contamination Eyes, see Ocular effects F Fabric filters, 3, 42, 43-44, 49, 51, 53, 67, 168 Federal government, 7, 27 committee charge, 13 General Accounting Office, 207, 212, 213 hazardous waste, 22 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), see also Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; Environmental Protection Agency; Legislation; Regulatory measures; Standards Feedstream composition and preparation, 2, 14, 15, 31, 35-37, 56 best practices, 67 durables, 28 fugitive emissions, 63 hazardous waste, 23, 36, 194, 195-196 historical perspectives, 30-31 inspections, 211-212 liquid-injection furnaces, 36, 38, 39, 60, 107, 195 medical waste, 25 monitoring, 49, 203, 204, 205 municipal solid waste, 18-19, 36, 41, 64, 67, 192 national statistics, 18-19, 23, 28 secondary waste streams, 23 shredding, 23, 38 standards, 182, 183, 188, 189, 192, 194, 195-196, 199, 203, 204, 205 see also Liquid waste; Solid waste Females, see Gender factors Filters, 23, 48, 51 see also Fabric filters Fines and penalties, 196, 207, 211, 213, 214 Fish, 5, 81, 82 cadmium, 86 PCBs, 159 dioxins, 5, 95, 96, 111 mercury, 5, 82, 89-90, 111, 148 Flue gas, 3, 31, 37, 40, 41, 64, 174, 183 best practices, 67 dioxins and furans, 55, 301, 302 lead, 53 monitoring, 49, 56-62, 70, 188, 194, 301 residence time, 2, 3, 37, 38, 40, 49, 52, 55, 56, 57, 65, 66, 76, 81, 98, 118, 195, 308 standards, 188, 192-193, 194, 195 temperature factors, 41, 188, 192-193 see also Particulate matter; Stack conditions Fly ash, see Ash Food and Drug Administration, 90 Food contamination, 4, 98, 111, 114, 248 arsenic, 88, 153, 154 cadmium, 86, 87, 98, 143 children, hand-to-mouth behavior, 162 chromium, 148 dioxins, 5, 82, 94-97, 98, 111, 162, 169 exposure pathways, 80, 81, 117, 142, 143, 147, 148, 149, 153, 154, 160, 162 lead, 142 mercury, 5, 82, 89-90, 98, 111, 147, 148, 149 PAHs, 160-161 PCBs, 159 risk assessments, 114, 117, 142, 249, 255 transport pathways, 5, 72, 73-74, 79, 255 vegan diets, 162 see also Dairy products; Fish; Meat; Vegetation Food waste, 18, 19, 25, 28, 29, 31-32 Forced vital capacity, 139

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Foreign countries, see International perspectives Fugitive emissions, 35, 63, 187, 191, 251 Furans, 2, 5, 31, 50, 55-56, 59, 62, 68 air pollution control devices, 42, 47, 49, 54-56, 62 ambient concentration levels, 100-107 (passim), biomarkers, 119 flue gases, 55, 301, 302 health effects, 5, 7, 119, 179 epidemiological studies, 123, 127, 128 exposure, 4-5, 93-97, 111 risk assessment, 113, 114, 155, 158, 169, 181 incomplete combustion products, 54 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), medical waste, 26, 201-205 (passim) off-normal operations, 303, 304, 306, 308 standards, other than MACT, 188, 190, 194 G Gastrointestinal effects, 124, 125, 151 arsenic, 152, 153 cadmium, 143 lead, 142, 144 mercury, 148, 149 Gaussian models, 76-77, 79 Gender factors animal studies, reproductive effects, 129 dioxins, 157 epidemiological studies, 120, 123, 128, 133 food contamination effects, 90 particulates, 133, 138 risk assessments, 133, 138, 157 General Accounting Office, 207, 212, 213 Germany, 106 Glass, 19, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 53, 63, 87 Government role continuous emission monitors, 8 databases, 6 information collection, 4, 10, 69 information dissemination, 10, 69 see also Federal government; Local government; Regulatory measures; Standards; State government Grates, 40, 41, Groundwater, 23, 65, 114, 160 H Hair, mercury concentrations, 106, 107 Hazardous air pollutant standards, 184-185, 193 see also specific pollutants Hazardous waste, 12, 17, 22-24, 107 air pollution control devices, 23, 43, 45, 49 ambient concentrations, 98-103 boilers, 23, 24, 41, 193, 194-195 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund), defined, 22 economic factors, 22, 23-24, 193 energy recovery, 23-24, 41, 193, 194-195, 199 EPA, 22, 23, 57, 64, 186, 193, 194, 196, 213 epidemiological studies, 124, 125 feed preparation and feeding practices, 23, 36, 194, 195-196 fugitive emissions, 63 furnace types, 30, 39 health effects, general, 22-23 historical perspectives, 22-23, 194 kilns, 23-24, 38, 64, 99, 108-109 land disposal, 22-23 lead emissions, 175 liquid, 23, 36, 38, 39, 51, 63, 107 liquid-injection furnaces, 36, 38, 39, 60, 107, 195 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), national statistics, 18 number of incineration facilities, 1 off-normal operation, 60 regulatory measures, 23, 184 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), social factors, 221 soil contamination, 22-23 solid, 23, 63 standards, 22, 48-49, 57, 99, 184, 186, 193-200, 207 water contamination, 22-23 wet scrubbers, 23, 43, 49 see also specific types of waste Hazardous Waste Civil Enforcement Response Policy,

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Health effects, 1-7 (passim), 8, 11, 12, 34, 70, 112-181 acidic gases and aerosols, 113, 134-139, 166, 178 allergies, 138-139 ambient pollutant concentrations and, 4, 11, 179, 180, 181 arsenic, 127, 151, 153-154 asthma, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 162 beryllium, 155, 157 biological markers, 113, 114, 118, 119-120, 142, 181 cadmium, 6, 82, 85-87, 98, 127, 140-142, 143. 144, 165, 168 carbon monoxide, 113, 139-140, 178 cardiovascular, 128, 139, 140, 143, 144, 147, 148, 149, 153, 175 chromium, 148, 151, 152 committee charge and methodology, 13, 14 cytogenic, 125-126, 149 data collection, 7, 69-70 design of facilities, 166, 169, 179 developmental effects, 144, 146, 148, 149, 158, 160, 161-162 dioxins, 6, 7, 166, 179 animal studies, 157, 158, 159, 172, 174 blood, 106, 157 carcinogenicity, 124, 157, 174 epidemiological studies, 123, 124, 126-127, 128 exposure, 4-5, 6, 82, 91, 93-97, 98, 106, 109, 110-111 risk assessments, 113, 114, 155, 157-159, 166, 169, 171-174, 180, 181, 253-254 EPA, 7, 111 furans, 4-5, 7, 93-97, 111, 119, 123, 127, 128, 155, 158, 169, 179, 181 gastrointestinal, 124, 125, 142, 143, 144, 148, 149, 151, 152, 153 hazardous wastes, general, 22-23 hepatic effects, 124, 144, 146, 157, 162, 163 lead, 6, 7, 127-128, 144, 146, 147, 166, 175 children, 91, 142, 146, 174, 175, 176 risk assessments, 113, 130-131, 142, 144-147, 166, 174-177, 180, 181 local factors, 73, 129-130, 131, 159, 166, 174, 178 Maximum Achievable Control Technology and, mercury, 6, 7, 148, 149, 166 exposure, 4-5, 6, 82, 89-90, 98, 106, 107, 147-148, 149-150 risk assessments, 147-148, 149-150, 166, 169, 177-178, 180, 181 metals, general, 4, 6, 68, 82, 127, 128, 140-155, 166, 168, 179 monitoring, 113, 114, 118, 119, 194, 195, 209-210 municipal solid waste, 6, 122-123, 124, 125-127 neurological effects, 141, 145, 146, 154, 155, 159, 160, 175, 176, 177 nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 113, 134-136 occupational exposures, 6, 124, 155, 157, 163, 164, 166, 171 ocular effects, 136, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159 off-normal conditions, 7, 160, 169, 180, 181 particulate matter, 6, 7, 166 epidemiological studies, 122-123, 131-133 exposure, 72, 82-85, 98, 110 gender factors, 133, 138 respiratory, 132, 133-134, 137, 138-139 risk assessments, 113, 130, 131-134, 137, 138-139, 166, 168, 170-171, 179, 181 performance testing, health-based, 13, 15, 49 regulatory issues, 13, 194, 195, 209-210 renal effects, 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150, 152, 162, 176 reproductive effects, 125-126, 128-129, 137, 140, 145, 146-147, 148, 150, 157, 158, 159, 160, 176 shutdown conditions, 160, 180 social factors, 209-210, 224, 227 variability analysis, 11, 117, 118, 180, 247-257, 260 uncertainty analysis, 11, 81, 116, 117, 118, 170, 173, 175, 176, 180, 246, 247-259 upset conditions, 7, 169, 180, 181 see also Age factors, human; Animals and animal studies; Biological markers; Cancer and carcinogenicity; Dermal absorption and effects; Dose-response analysis; Epidemiology; Exposure and exposure pathways;

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Gender factors; Hematology; Occupational exposures; Psychological factors; Respiratory effects; Risk assessments; specific chemicals Heart disease, see Cardiovascular effects Hematology, 126, 130-131 arsenic, 152, 154 biomarkers, 119 cadmium, 143 dioxins and furans, 106, 157 hydrogen chloride, 137 lead, 127-128, 142, 144, 146, 147, 165, 175, 176 mercury, 148, 150 PAHs, 160, 163 Hepatic effects, 124, 144, 146, 157, 162, 163 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 126 Historical perspectives, 26-27, 182 air pollution control devices, 63 air-injection systems, 40 beryllium, 155 epidemiological studies, 124 hazardous waste, 22-23, 194 kilns, 23 legislation, 27 medical waste, 24 municipal solid waste, 19-21, 22, 30 packaging waste, 28 sensitive populations, 161 worker training, 48 HIV, see AIDS Hospitals and hospitalization cardiovascular effects, 140 respiratory effects, 134, 135, 138, 171 wastes, 24, 25, 200, 201 Hydrocarbons, 49, 50, 55, 56, 60, 62, 91, 129, 172 off-normal operations, 307, 308, 309 standards, 194, 195, 196, 197, 199 see also Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Hydrogen bromide, 51 Hydrogen chloride (HCl), 50, 51, 52, 97, 98, 215 emission controls, 3, 45, 49, 51, 55, 56, 66 epidemiological studies, 122-123 medical wastes, 201, 202, 203, 205 risk assessments, 113, 136-137, 178 standards, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 198, 201, 202, 203, 205 Hydrogen fluoride, 51, 137 Hydrogen iodide, 51 Hypertension, 128, 162 I Immune system, 159, 162 Incomplete combustion, 2, 3, 37, 50, 54, 55, 65, 66, 68 risk assessments, 118, 159-161, 174 standards, 183, 194, 195 see also Dioxins; Furans; Particulate matter Industrial Source Complex models, 76 Infants, 132, 161-162, 174 Infectious medical waste, 24, 25-26, 36, 200 Information dissemination, 2, 4 air pollution control devices, 4, 69-70 committee charge, 13 continuous emission monitors, 8-9 foreign technologies, 8 risk communication, 2, 9, 13, 118, 228, 229, 233-242, 244, 245, 259 stack emission rate information, 56-62, 70 upset conditions, 4, 9, 182, 210, 215 see also Databases; Data collection; Internet; Professional education and training; Public education Ingestion, see Food contamination Inhalation, 4, 5, 72, 80, 81, 98, 111, 114 arsenic, 88, 151, 152, 153, 154 beryllium, 155, 156 cadmium, 87, 98, 141-142, 143 chromium, 148 lead, 142, 144-145 mercury, 147, 149, 150 particulates, 84, 98 see also Respiratory effects Inspection of facilities, 48-49, 67, 184, 194, 199, 204, 206, 210-213 Integrated Risk Information System, 116 Integrated Waste Services Association, 18, 22 International perspectives air pollution control devices, 8, 22, 23, 42, 47, 48, 49, 214-215 Belgium, 23 Europe, 23, 42, 47, 48, 49 hazardous waste, 23 municipal waste, 22 technologies, 8, 22, 214-215 see also Canada

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Internet citizen-group networks, 218-219 energy recovery, 18, 22 Industrial Source Complex models, 76 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), regulatory compliance, 215 stack emission rate information, 57, 58 K Kidneys, see Renal effects Kilns, 13, 17, 43 ambient pollutant concentrations, 99 fugitive emissions, 63 hazardous waste, 23-24, 38, 64, 99, 108-109 lead, 175 national statistics, 18 number of, 1, 18 particulates, 64, 171 stack emission rate information, 57 standards, 184, 189, 196, 197, 198 L Land disposal, hazardous waste, 22-23 Landfills medical waste, 26 municipal solid waste, 17, 20, 21, 27, 32, 228 Lead (Pb), 50, 53-54, 65, 66, 91, 92, 106 air pollution control devices, 53-54 ambient concentration levels, 91, 92, 100, 102 ash, 53, 54 batteries, 32 blood levels, 127-128, 142, 144, 146, 147, 165, 175, 176 flue gas, 53 food contamination, 142 health effects, 6, 7, 166 children, 91, 142, 146, 174, 175, 176 epidemiological studies, 127-128, 146 exposure, 6, 91, 92, 98, 144-145, 146 risk assessments, 113, 130-131, 142, 144-147, 166, 174-177, 180, 181 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), medical wastes, 201, 202, 203 rural areas, 91, 92, 106 soil contamination, 92, 106, 107, 109 standards, other than MACT, 91, 113, 164, 184, 190 transport pathways, 91, 98 Legal issues environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245 litigation, 132, 184, 189, 202, 213-214 risk communication, 236, 244 see also Regulatory measures Legislation, 27 Civil Rights Act, 232-233 Clean Air Act, 184-185, 186-187, 188, 193, 194, 211 see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Clean Water Act, 184, 193 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund), Superfund Amendments an Reauthorization Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, 184, 200 see also Regulatory measures; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Life-cycle assessment, 114, 118 Liquid-injection furnaces, 36, 38, 39, 60, 107, 195 Liquid waste, 26, 53, 55, 122 hazardous, 23, 36, 38, 39, 51, 63, 107 medical, 26 mercury, 53 Litigation, 132, 184, 189, 202, 213-214 Liver, see Hepatic effects Local factors and impacts, 10, 73, 74, 111, 98, 99, 104-110, 111, 112, 169 air dispersion, 76-77, 94, 98 environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245 epidemiological studies, 120-126 exposure, 8, 98, 111, 114, 117, 159 food contamination, 117 health impacts, 73, 159 risk assessments, 129-130, 131, 166, 174, 178 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), off-normal operations, 44, 301-309 soils, 106-107

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH weather, 6, 70, 83, 99, 110 see also Ambient pollutant concentrations; Social factors; Urban areas Local government, 7, 10, 13, 26-27, 30, 65, 182, 189, 192, 230 see also Urban areas Low-income persons, see Environmental justice M MACT, see Maximum Achievable Control Technology Males, see Gender factors Malfunctions, see Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), acid gases and aerosols, 166, 178 cadmium, 187, 196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 205 carbon monoxide, 197, 199-205 (passim), 214 criticism of, 192-193, 202-203, 214 dioxins, 7, 8, 58, 101, 102, 103, 166, 169, 172, 180, 188, 190, 193, 196, 197, 200-205 (passim) economic factors, 187, 188 furans, 7, 169, 196, 201-205 (passim)(passim) hazardous wastes, 57, 99 health effects, 166-167, 169-181 (passim) Internet, 57, 58 lead, 7, 8, 166, 174, 180, 187, 196, 197, 201, 202, 203 local factors, 7, 166, 174 medical wastes, 8, 169, 200-203, 204-206, 214 mercury, 7, 8, 166, 177, 178, 180, 187, 188-189, 190, 192, 193, 196, 197, 201-205 (passim) metals, general, 7, 8, 166 occupational exposures, 7, 166, 169-170, 171, 177, 181, 207-208 particulates, 7, 8, 51, 101, 102, 103, 166, 170, 196, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204 Meat, 5 arsenic, 88 dioxins, 5, 82, 94, 95, 96, 111 Medical waste, 12, 17, 19, 24-26 air pollution control devices, 203, 204, 215 amount generated, 24 autoclaving, 26 cadmium, 26, 201, 202, 203, 205 carbon monoxide, 200-204 (passim), 303 data collection, 203, 204, 205, 206 defined, 200 dioxins, 26, 200-205 (passim) emission monitoring, 203, 204, 205 energy recovery, 42 EPA, 200, 202 epidemiological studies, 122, 123 feed preparation and feeding practices, 36 furans, 26, 201-205 (passim) furnace types, 30, 39 hospitals, 24, 25, 200, 201 hydrogen chloride, 201, 202, 203, 205 infectious, 24, 25-26, 36, 200 lead, 201, 202, 203 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), mercury, 201-205(passim) national statistics, 18 nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 201, 202 number of incineration facilities, 1 particulates, 200-205 (passim) professional training about disposal, 25, 203, 204, 205, 206 rural areas, 202, 204 social factors, 221 standards, 8, 25, 169, 200-203, 204-206, 214 types of, 24, 25 urban areas, 25, 26 Mercury (Hg), 3, 50, 52, 56, 65 air pollution control devices, 3, 42, 47-48, 49, 52-53, 66 ambient concentration levels, 100, 101, 102, 103, 110 batteries, 32 combustion, vaporization, 53, 66 continuous emission monitors, 8-9, 69, 215 emission monitoring, 49 EPA, 8, 53, 89, 215 exposure and exposure pathways, 89-90, 106, 107, 110-111, 147-148 fish, 5, 82, 89-90, 111, 148 food contamination, 5, 82, 89-90, 98, 111, 147, 148, 149

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH health effects, 6, 7, 166 exposure, 4-5, 6, 82, 89-90, 98, 106, 107, 147-148, 149-150 risk assessments, 113, 147-148, 149-150, 166, 169, 177-178, 180, 181 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), medical wastes, 201-205 (passim) occupational exposures, 6, 148, 166, 168, 177 soil contamination, 89, 107, 109 transport processes, 89-90, 98, 110-111 Metals, 3, 31, 32, 37, 53, 65, 68, 110, 163 air pollution control devices, 3, 43, 63 health effects, 68, 166, 179 epidemiological studies, 127 exposure, 4, 6, 82, 128, 140-155 (passim) risk assessments, 140-155, 166, 168 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), medical waste, 26 standards, 195 transport pathways, 75, 108, 109 see also specific metals Meteorological conditions, see Weather conditions Metropolitan areas, see Urban areas Milk products, see Dairy products Minorities, see African-Americans; Civil Rights Act; Environmental justice Models and modeling, 103, 181 environmental transport, 5, 74, 75, 76-77, 78-80, 89, 103-104, 110-111, 117, 118 multimedia, 79-80, 107-109, 255 exposure pathways, 81-82, 94, 111 Gaussian, 76-77, 79 risk assessment, 115, 117, 130, 247-248, 249-250, 256-257, 258 uncertainty analysis, 247-248, 249-250, 256-257, 258 variance-propagation, 11, 257, 260 Monitoring, 103-110, 214-215 ambient pollutant concentrations, 103-110 feedstream composition and preparation, 49, 203, 204, 205 health, 113, 114, 118, 119, 194, 195, 209-210 regulatory issues, 194, 195, 203, 204, 205, 209-210, 214-215 social issues, 209-210, 218 temperature in incinerators, 203, 204, 205 see also Emission monitoring; Inspection of facilities; Performance testing Municipal solid waste, 12, 17, 18-22, 40, 65, 104-106, 301-303, 307-308 air pollution control devices, 21, 42-46 (passim), best practices, 67 composting, 17, 19, 20, 21, 27, 28-29, 30, 32 defined, 18-19 dioxins, 55-56, 82, 104-106 economic factors, 21, 29, 221, 224 energy recovery, 18, 21, 22, 38, 41, 109 EPA, 18, 21, 186-187, 188-192, 215, 305 epidemiological studies, 122-123, 124, 125-127 feed preparation and feeding practices, 18-19, 36, 41, 64, 67, 192 fugitive emissions, 63 furnace types, 30, 39 health effects, 6, 122-123, 124, 125-127, 127 historic perspectives, 19-21, 22, 30 landfills, 17, 20, 21, 27, 32, 228 medical waste in, 24 mercury, 89 national statistics, 18, 19-21 number of incineration facilities, 1 occupational exposures, 6, 125-127, 202, 204, 207 recycling and reuse, 19, 20, 21, 30 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), social factors, 221 standards, 8, 69, 186-193, 202, 204, 207, 211, 214, 215, 305 urban areas, 22, 30, 126-128 see also specific types of wastes Mutagenic effects, 125-126 N National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 185 carbon monoxide, 97 metals, 91 National Fire Prevention Association, 37

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Neurological effects arsenic, 154 cadmium, 141 dioxins, 155, 159 lead, 145, 146, 175, 176 mercury, 148, 150, 177 PAHs, 160 PCBs, 159 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) epidemiological studies, 121, 123 risk assessments, 134, 136 standards, 184 Nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 2, 3, 31, 37, 50, 51-52 air pollution control devices, 42, 46-47, 49, 52, 66, 67 best practices, 67 emission limits, 42 epidemiological studies, 121 food waste, 31-32 health effects, 113, 134-136 medical waste, 201, 202 off-normal operation, 9, 60, 61, 62, 308 standards, 118, 188, 191, 194, 195, 201, 202 temperature factors, 3, 51-52 yard waste, 31-32 O Occupational exposures, 6, 7, 35, 181 air pollution control devices, exposure due to, ash handling, 64, 207-208 beryllium, 155 biomarkers, 119 cadmium, 165, 168 dioxins, 6, 124, 155, 157, 163, 164, 166, 171 EPA, 207, 208, 214, 216 epidemiological studies, 120, 124, 125-128 health effects, general, 6, 124, 155, 157, 163, 164, 166, 171 lead, 165, 166, 168 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), mercury, 6, 148, 166, 168, 177 municipal solid waste, 6, 125-127, 202, 204, 207 particulates, 166, 170 protective equipment, 127-128, 207 risk assessments, 130, 155, 157, 163-165, 166, 168, 171, 177 standards, other than MACT, 113-114, 203-204, 207, 214 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Occupational training, see Professional education and training Ocular effects, 136, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159 Off-normal conditions, 60-62, 251 carbon monoxide, 60, 62, 303, 305, 307-309 dioxins, 61, 301-308 electrostatic precipitators, 62, 304-305, 306 furans, 303, 304, 306, 308 hydrocarbons, 307, 308, 309 health effects, 7, 160, 169, 180, 181 hydrocarbons, 307, 308, 309 local factors, 44, 301-309 nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 9, 60, 61, 62, 308 regulatory measures, 60, 210 temperature factors, 61, 301-309 (passim) vignettes, 301-309 see also Shutdown conditions; Startup conditions; Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions Opacity, see Visibility and visibility standards Operating conditions, 1-2, 10-11, age of incinerators, 8, 38, 42, 126, 130, 184, 188, 197-198, 214, 215, 234 ash production, 4 best practices, 67 committee charge, 13 databases, 6 emission controls, 4 information on, 4 lead in ash, 53, 54 particulate matter, 51 stack emission rate information, 56-62 standards, 188, 195-196 trial burns, 56, 57, 195, 196, 210, 211 see also Combustion processes and efficiency; Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT); Off-normal conditions Ozone, 122, 133, 139, 184

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH P Packaging and containers, 27, 28, 31, 32 hazardous waste, 23 medical waste, 26 municipal solid waste, 19 recycling and reuse, 29, 31, 32-33 Paper waste, 19, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32 PAHs, see Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PCBs, see Polychlorinated biphenyls Particulate matter, 2, 50-51, 68, 69 air pollution control devices, 42, 43-45, 47, 51, 54, 63, 103 ambient concentration levels, 100, 101, 102, 103, 108, 131-132, 134 cadmium, 86 EPA, 84-85, 132, 133 health effects, 6, 7, 166 epidemiological studies, 122-123, 131-133 exposure, 72, 82-85, 98, 110, 131-132 gender factors, 133, 138 respiratory, 132, 133-134, 137, 138-139 risk assessments, 113, 130, 131-134, 137, 138-139, 166, 168, 170-171, 179, 181 kilns, 64, 171 lead in, 54 Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), medical waste, 200-205 (passim) monitoring, 45 occupational exposures, 166, 170 off-normal operation, 60 standards, other than MACT, 113, 131-132, 184, 186, 188, 190, 194 transport pathways, 82-84, 98 see also Ash; Electrostatic precipitators; Fabric filters; Wet scrubbers Penalties, see Fines and penalties Performance testing, 4, 9, 49, 67, 69, 181, 184, 186, 188, 195, 196, 200, 203, 204, 205, 206, 210, 212, 214, 215-216, 251-252, 301 health-based, 13, 15, 49 see also Monitoring Persistence, 4, 5, 8, 55, 74-76 regional factors, 5, 73, 74 Photochemical oxidants, 194 PICs, see Incomplete combustion Plants, see Vegetation Plastics, 19, 25, 31, 32 Pneumonia, 134 Political factors, 222, 255 advocacy, 13, 21, 193, 209-210, 211-212, 218-219, 221-223, 227, 229 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23, 50, 62, 98, 104, 106, 126, 159, 174 standards, 193, 199, 200 Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, see Dioxins Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, see Furans Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 2, 50, 54, 55, 62, 98, 104, 107-108, 126, 160-161, 163, 174, 309 Polystyrene, 31 Polyvinyl chloride, 31 Poverty, see Environmental justice Process emissions, 1, 2-4, 50-56, 211 Products of incomplete combustion (PICs), see Incomplete combustion Professional education and training, 3, 48-49, 67, 188, 196, 207-208 medical waste, 25, 203, 204, 205, 206 standards, 48, 69, 188, 196, 203-209 (passim) Property values, 9, 218, 219, 223, 225, 226, 227, 230, 232, 239, 240, 241, 242, 247 Protective equipment, incinerator workers, 127-128, 207 Psychological factors, 1, 9, 10, 182, 183, 217, 223, 224, 225-226, 228, 229, 241, 242, 244, 246, 250-251 see also Public opinion Public education, 2, 9-10, 214, 222-223, 225, 228, 229 risk communication, 2, 9, 13, 118, 228, 229, 233-242, 244, 245, 259 Public Health Service, see Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Public opinion, 2, 12, 21, 24, 26-27, 227, 229, 235, 241-242, 243 advocacy, 13, 21, 193, 209-210, 211-212, 218-219, 221-223, 227, 229 committee charge and methodology, 13, 14 community relations, 10, 182, 183, 212, 214, 221-223, 242-243, 244-245, 260 risk assessments, 9, 209 see also Psychological factors PVC, see Polyvinyl chloride

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH R Race/ethnicity, see African-Americans; Environmental justice Radioactive waste, 14 RCRA, see Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Recycling and reuse of waste, 2, 17, 27, 28-29, 31, 32-33 batteries, 32 durables, 28 hazardous waste, 23 medical waste, 25, 26 municipal solid waste, 19, 20, 21, 30 packaging, 29, 31, 32-33 see also Energy recovery; Kilns Red bag waste, see Infectious medical waste Regional factors and impacts, 5, 110, 230-231 exposure, 110, 114, 117 life-cycle assessment, 114, 118 persistence of pollutants, 5, 73, 74 regulatory compliance, 210 risk assessments, 166, 169, 172, 178, 180, 181 total regional emissions, 97 transport pathways, 73, 74, 98, 107 Regulatory measures, 7-9, 12, 68, 182-216 compliance and enforcement, 7, 184, 194, 195, 209-214 fines and penalties, 196, 207, 211, 213, 214 criticism of, 192-193, 202-203, 209-210, 212, 214 data collection requirements, 194, 203, 204, 205, 206, 212, 214-216 emission monitoring, 8-9, 49, 68, 203, 204, 205, 211, 214-215, 303 environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245 hazardous waste, 23, 184 health effects, 13, 194, 195, 209-210 kilns, 184, 189, 196, 197, 198 inspection of facilities, 48-49, 67, 184, 194, 199, 204, 206, 210-213 Integrated Risk Information System, 116 monitoring requirements, 194, 195, 203, 204, 205, 209-210 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), off-normal operations, 60, 210 recycling, 29 upset conditions, 9, 169, 210 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Legislation; Local government; Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT); Performance testing; Standards; State government Renal effects, 162 arsenic, 152 cadmium, 141, 142, 143 lead, 142, 145, 146, 147, 176 mercury, 148, 150 Reproductive effects animal studies, 128-129, 137 carbon monoxide, 140 dioxins, 157, 158 hydrogen chloride, 137 lead, 145, 146-147, 176 mercury, 148, 150 mutagenic, 125-126 PAHs, 160 PCBs, 159 see also Developmental effects Residence time, 2, 3, 37, 38, 40, 49, 52, 55, 56, 57, 65, 66, 76, 81, 98, 118, 195, 308 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), fugitive emissions, 63 municipal solid waste, 65, 189 hazardous waste, 22, 24, 48, 49, 63, 64, 65, 186, 193, 194-196, 199 medical waste, 24 monitoring, 49, 211 worker training, 48 see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Respiratory effects, 120-123 acidic gases and aerosols, 138-139, 178 arsenic, 152, 154 asthma, 122, 123, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 162 beryllium, 155, 156 bronchitis, 133, 138-139, 156 cadmium, 141, 143 cancer, 124, 125, 151, 155, 156, 157 carbon monoxide, 139-140 children, 121, 122, 132, 136, 138, 139 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 134, 155

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH dioxins, 156, 157 emphysema, 133 epidemiological studies, 120-123, 124, 125, 132, 133 hospitalization, 134, 135, 138, 171 hydrogen chloride, 136-137 mercury, 148, 150 nitrogen oxides, 134-136 particulates, 132, 133-134, 137, 138-139 PCBs, 159 pneumonia, 134 risk assessments, 132-141 (passim) smoking, 84, 120, 122, 127, 133, 139-140, 155, 163 see also Inhalation Risk assessments, 2, 6, 7, 111, 112-114, 115-118, 129-181 acidic gases and aerosols, 113, 134-139, 166, 178 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, arsenic, 113, 114, 151, 153-154 beryllium, 155, 156 biological markers, 113, 114, 118 cadmium, 113, 140-142, 143, 144 carbon monoxide, 113, 139-140, 178 carcinogenicity, 114, 116, 130, 143, 144, 147, 151-157 (passim), 162, 163 chromium, 148, 151, 152 committee charge and methodology, 13, 14, 15 dermal absorption and effects, 117, 136, 142, 147-148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 156, 159 developmental effects, 144, 146, 148, 149, 158, 160, 161-162 dioxins, 113, 114, 155, 157-159, 166, 169, 171-174, 180, 181, 253-254 economic factors, 116, 253 emission monitoring, 116 EPA, 111, 116 exposure and exposure pathways, 111, 112, 116-117, 131-132, 250, 252-254 food contamination, 114, 117, 142, 249, 255 furans, 113, 114, 155, 158, 169, 181 gender factors, 133, 138, 157 hazardous air pollutants, general, 184-185 hydrogen chloride, 113, 136-137, 178 incomplete combustion, 118, 159-161, 174 lead, 113, 130-131, 142, 144-147, 166, 174-177, 180, 181 life-cycle assessments and, 118 local factors, 129-130, 131, 166, 174, 178 mercury, 113, 147-148, 149-150, 166, 169, 177-178, 180, 181 metals, general, 140-155, 166, 168 models, 115, 117, 130, 247-248, 249-250, 256-257, 258 nitrous oxides, 113, 134, 136 occupational exposures, 130, 155, 157, 163-165, 166, 168, 171, 177 particulates, 113, 130, 131-134, 137, 138-139, 166, 168, 170-171, 179, 181 PCBs, 159-160 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 113 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 113, 160-161 public opinion, 9, 209; see also Risk communication regional, 166, 169, 172, 178, 180, 181 respiratory effects, 132-141 (passim) sensitive populations, 132, 139, 146, 159, 161-163, 193; see also Age factors; Gender factors standards, 13, 129 sulfates, 113, 133, 135, 136, 138, 178 transport processes, uncertainty, 11, 81, 116, 117, 118, 170, 173, 175, 176, 180, 246, 247-259 variability, 11, 117, 118, 180, 247, 249-257, 260 see also Dose-response analysis; Epidemiology Risk communication, 2, 9, 13, 118, 228, 229, 233-242, 244, 245, 259 Rural areas, 108 arsenic, 87, 151 cadmium, 107 dioxins, 94, 104-106 lead concentrations, 91, 92, 106 medical waste, 202, 204 radioactive fallout studies, 77 S SCREEN3, 76 Scrubbers, 42, 43-44, 45-46, 65, 195 see also Wet scrubbers Sediment contamination, 78-79 arsenic, 88 cadmium, 85-86 dioxins, 96

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH Selective catalytic/noncatalytic reduction, 46-47 Semivolatile metals, see Cadmium; Lead Sensitivity analysis, 11, 82, 115, 249, 260 Sensitive populations, 132, 139, 146, 159, 161-163, 193 see also Age factors; Environmental justice; Gender factors; Occupational exposures Sex-related factors, see Gender factors Shredding, 23, 38 Shutdown conditions, 66, 160, 180, 307 defined, 60 emission monitoring, 9 health effects, 160, 180 information on, 4, 9, 215 stack-gas testing, 60 standards, 183, 195, 199 Skin, see Dermal absorption and effects Smoking, 84, 120, 122, 127, 133, 139-140, 155, 163 Smog, see Photochemical oxidants; Visibility and visibility standards Source reduction and control, 4, 27-33 (passim), 51, 54 Stack factors, 34, 195 databases, 6 dioxins, 58-59, 62 emission rate information, 56-62, 70 standards, 56, 70, 195, 203, 204, 205, 210 see Flue gas State government, 7, 27, 114, 182, 183, 185, 189, 192, 194, 206, 207, 210, 213, 230, 233, 303 Steam generation, 12, 34, 38 see also Boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) Storage of waste, 14, 17, 34, 36 Social factors, 1, 9-10, 12, 29, 210, 217-245, 260 committee charge and methodology, 13, 14, 15 community relations, 10, 182, 209-210, 212, 214, 221-223, 242-243, 244-245, 260 environmental justice, 213-214, 227, 231-233, 243, 245 health effects, 209-210, 224, 227 monitoring programs, 209-210, 218 public education, 2, 9-10, 214, 222-223, 225, 228, 229 risk communication, 2, 9, 13, 118, 228, 229, 233-242, 244, 245, 259 see also Economic factors; Health effects; Psychological factors; Public opinion Soil contamination, 4, 5, 105, 107-109, 248, 255 arsenic, 88, 109 cadmium, 85, 86, 87, 106 carbon monoxide, 97 dioxins, 94, 95, 96, 105, 107, 109 hazardous waste, general, 22-23 lead, 92, 106, 107, 109 local factors, 106-107 mercury, 89, 107, 109 multimedia transport models, 79-80, 108-109, 255 plant contamination and, 77-78, 86, 107 standards, 189 transport pathways, 73, 74, 75, 77, 79-80, 108-109, 255 see also Groundwater; Sediment contamination Solid waste, 23, 27, 63 see also Municipal solid waste Spray-dryer absorbers, 3, 42, 45-46, 62, 65, 66 Standards, 68, 168, 183-216 acidic gases and particles, 113, 188, 193 age of incinerators, 184, 188, 197-198, 214, 215 air pollution control devices, 188, 194, 195, 203, 204, 205, 215; see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) ambient pollution levels, 2, 5, 91, 97, 155, 189 ash, 187, 191, 207-208 beryllium, 155 best practices, 67, 186; see also Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) cadmium, 190 carbon monoxide, 97, 113, 184, 191, 192, 195, 197, 199-205 (passim), 214, 305, 308 chlorine, 194, 196, 198, 199 criticism of, 192-193, 202-203, 209 compliance and enforcement, 7, 184, 194, 195, 209-214 fines and penalties, 196, 207, 211, 213, 214

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH databases, 6, 70 dioxins, 188, 194, 199 electrostatic precipitators, 43, 44 emission monitoring, 188, 194, 195, 199, 203, 204, 205 epidemiological studies, 123 feedstream, 182, 183, 188, 189, 192, 194, 195-196, 199, 203, 204, 205 flue gases, 188, 192-193, 194, 195 furans, 188, 190, 194 hazardous air pollutants, 184-185, 193 hazardous wastes, 22, 48-49, 57, 99, 184, 186, 193-200, 207 hydrocarbons, 194, 195, 196, 197, 199 hydrogen chloride, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 198, 201, 202, 203, 205 incomplete combustion, 183, 194, 195 kilns, 184, 189, 196, 197, 198 lead, 91, 113, 164, 184, 190 medical waste, 8, 25, 169, 200-203, 204-206, 214 metals, 91 nitrogen and nitrogen oxides, 118, 188, 191, 194, 195, 201, 202 National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 91, 97, 185 occupational exposures, 113-114, 203-204, 207, 214 particulates, 113, 131-132, 184, 186, 188, 190, 194 performance criteria, 13 risk assessments, 13, 129 shutdown, 183, 195, 199 soil, 189 stack factors, 56, 70, 195, 203, 204, 205, 210 sulfates, 184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 201, 202 temperature, 187-188, 192-193, 195 worker training, 48, 69, 188, 196, 203-209 (passim) see also Legislation; Regulatory measures Startup conditions, 4, 9, 66, 169, 304-305, 307 defined, 60 emission monitoring, 9, 60, 61 health effects, 169, 180 information on, 4, 9, 215 stack-gas testing, 60, 61 Sulfates, 2, 3, 31, 37, 38, 50, 51 air pollution control devices, 3, 45, 49, 51, 55, 66 epidemiological studies, 121, 122-123, 133 risk assessments, 113, 133, 135, 136, 138, 178 standards, 184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 201, 202 Superfund, see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Superfund Amendments an Reauthorization Act, Switzerland, 23 T Telemetering, 214-215 Temperature factors, 2-3, 6, 31, 38, 40, 63, 68 air pollution control devices, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 53, 55 auxiliary burners, 3, 41, 49, 66, 67, 301 best practices, 67 cool spots, furnace walls, 37, 38 dioxins, 55, 56, 58, 61, 62, 193 flue gas, 41, 188, 192-193 furans, 55, 56 gas temperature reduction, 34, 41-42 lead emissions, 53 monitoring requirements, 203, 204, 205 nitrous oxide formation, 3, 51-52 off-normal operation, 61, 301-309 (passim) sizing of furnace, 40 standards, 187-188, 192-193, 195 Time factors, 5, 9 environmental monitoring, 119 inspections, frequency of, 211-212, 213 residence time, 2, 3, 37, 38, 40, 49, 52, 55, 56, 57, 65, 66, 76, 81, 98, 118, 195, 308 temperature and, 38 transport pathways, 73, 75, 76 Time-series analysis, 131-132 Tobacco, see Smoking Toxic Substances Control Act, 184, 200 Trace compounds, 31, 33, 54, 308 see also specific compounds Training, see Professional education and training Transport processes (environmental), 5, 7, 12, 71, 72, 73-80, 98 arsenic, 88-89 cadmium, 85-86, 98

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH carbon monoxide, 97 dioxins, 75, 93-95, 98, 110-111 food contamination, 5, 72, 73-74, 79, 255 hydrogen chloride, 97, 98 lead, 91, 98 mercury, 89-90, 98, 110-111 metals, general, 75, 108, 109 models, 5, 74, 75, 76-77, 78-80, 89, 103-104, 110-111, 117, 118 multimedia, 79-80, 107-109, 255 particulates, 82-84, 98 regional factors, 73, 74, 98, 107 risk assessment and, 117, 118, 252-254 soil, 73, 74, 75, 77, 79-80, 108-109, 255 time factors, 73, 75, 76 vegetation, 73, 74, 75, 77-78, 79-80, 108-109, 255 water, 4, 5, 73, 74, 75, 78-80 wind, 72, 76, 77, 79-80, 105, 255 see also Dispersion of emissions Trial burns, 56, 57, 195, 196, 210, 211 Turbulence, combustion, 2, 3, 38, 66-67 U Uncertainty and uncertainty analysis, 10-11, 103, 165, 215, 246-260 dose-response analysis, 116, 117, 118, 246, 248, 250, 254-257 epidemiology, 119-120 exposure pathways, 81, 82, 115, 117 models, 247-248, 249-250, 256-257, 258 risk assessment, 11, 81, 116, 117, 118, 170, 173, 175, 176, 180, 246, 247-259 social distrust, 229 weather, 69 Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society, Upset conditions, accidents and malfunctions, 3, 11, 35, 66, 183 community relations, 182, 210 data collection during, 3-4, 9, 181 defined, 60 health effects, 7, 169, 180, 181 information on, 4, 9, 182, 210, 215 regulatory issues, 9, 169, 210 stack-gas testing, 60-62 trial burns, 56, 57, 195, 196, 210, 211 Urban areas, 7 acidic aerosols, 138 carbon monoxide, 97 dioxins, 94 environmental justice, 231 hydrogen chloride, 97 medical waste, 25, 26 municipal solid waste, 22, 30, 126-128 nitrogen dioxide, 136 particulates, 84-85, 132, 133, 171 transport pathways, 76 see also Municipal solid wastes U.S. Air Force, 137 V Variability analysis, 11, 246-260 exposure pathways, 117 propagation models, 11, 257, 260 risk assessment, 11, 117, 118, 180, 247, 249-257, 260 Vegetation cadmium, 86 dioxins, 94, 95, 96 disposition rates, 5, 77-78 exposure pathways, 82, 86 lead, 92, 106, 107 mercury, 107 metals, general, 106, 107 multimedia transport models, 79-80, 108-109, 255 PAHs, 107-108 PCBs, 106 standards, 189 transport pathways, 73, 74, 75, 77-78, 79-80, 108-109, 255 vegan diets, 162 Venturi scrubbers, 43, 45, 49, 51 Visibility and visibility standards, 44, 49, 133, 186, 189, 191, 195, 202-205 (passim) Volatile organic compounds, 2, 74, 75, 83, 194 see also specific compounds Volume source reduction, 27-28 W Waste Energy Technologies, Inc., 26 Waste stream, see Feedstream composition and preparation Waste-to-energy facilities, see Energy recovery Water contamination, 5, 14, 249 arsenic, 87-88, 151

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WASTE INCINERATION & PUBLIC HEALTH cadmium, 85-86 dioxins, 95, 96 groundwater, 23, 65, 114, 160 hazardous waste, 22-23 lead, 92 mercury, 89 multimedia transport models, 79-80, 255 PAHs, 160 transport pathways, 4, 5, 73, 74, 75, 78-80, 108-109, 255 see also Fish; Groundwater; Sediment contamination Water vapor, 31, 37, 50 Weather conditions, 72, 76, 77, 83, 99 databases, 6, 70 local factors, 6, 70, 83, 99, 110 plant contamination and, 77-78 wind, 72, 76, 77, 79-80, 105, 255 Wet scrubbers, 3, 35, 42, 44-46, 47, 51, 52, 64, 65, 66, 103 best practices, 67 dioxins and furans, 55 hazardous waste, 23, 43, 49 venturi scrubbers, 43, 45, 49, 51 Wind, 72, 76, 77, 79-80, 105, 255 Workers, see Occupational exposures; Professional education and training World Health Organization, 134 World Wide Web, see Internet Y Yard waste, 18, 19, 28, 29, 31-32 Z Zinc, food chain, 87