5). Formation mechanisms and emission-reduction techniques are discussed. Information is provided on stack emission rates during normal operation vs. offnormal operating scenarios such as startup, shutdown, and process upset conditions. Fugitive emissions, residual ash, and scrubber water handling are briefly discussed.


Table 3-1 lists the common waste storage, waste staging, feed preparation and feeding practices for municipal solid-waste, hazardous-waste, and medical-waste incinerators. These practices are highly waste-and facility-specific.

Proper design and operation of these “front-end” plant operations are important for several reasons:

  • While the plant is operating, the potential for worker exposure to hazardous materials is the greatest in this part of the facility. Without appropriate engineered and administrative controls, including personnel protective equipment, operators can be exposed to hazardous dust and vapors.

  • This part of the plant is the highest potential source of fugitive dust and vapor emissions to the environment, and the greatest potential fire hazard.

  • Without proper waste preparation and feeding, the furnace combustion performance may be impaired.

FIGURE 3-1 Typical waste-incineration facility schematic.

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