TABLE 4-4 Environmental Lead Concentrations in Remote and Rural Areas and Urban Areasa

 

Remote and Rural Lead Concentration, µg/gb

Reference

Urban Lead Concentration, µg/gb

References

Air

0.05

Lindberg and Harriss 1981

0.3

Facchetti and Geiss 1982; Galloway et al. 1982

Fresh water

1.7 × 10-5

Elias et al. 1982

0.005-0.030

EPA 1986a, Vol. II

Soil

10-30

EPA 1986a, Vol. II

150-300

EPA 1986a, Vol. II

Plants

0.18c

Elias et al. 1982

950d

Graham and Kalman 1974

Herbivores (bone)

2.0d

Elias et al. 1982

38d

Chmiel and Harrison 1981

Omnivores (bone)

1.3d

Elias et al. 1982

67d

Chmiel and Harrison 1981

Carnivores (bone)

1.4d

Elias et al. 1982

193d

Chmiel and Harrison 1981

a Values can be highly variable, depending on organism and habitat location

b Except µg/m3 in air

c Fresh weight

d Dry weight

Source: NRC 1993.



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