Glossary and Acronyms


ACS

American Cancer Society.

AIBS

American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Amplification

a process for producing an increase in pertinent genetic material.

ASBREM

Armed Services Biomedical Research Evaluation and Management Committee.

ASCN

American Society for Clinical Nutrition.

ASCO

American Society of Clinical Oncology.

ASNS

American Society for Nutritional Sciences.

Ataxia telangiectasia

autosomal recessive disorder of the nervous system; carriers of the gene are more sensitive to radiation and have a higher risk of cancer.

Atypical hyperplasia

proliferation of cells showing nuclear atypicality, especially as scattered cells.


BAA

Broad Agency Announcement.

BCL1

cell cycle gene overexpressed in parathyroid adenomas and breast cancers; rearranged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia; also known as PRAD1 and Cyclin D1.

BCRP

Breast Cancer Research Program.



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A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research Glossary and Acronyms ACS American Cancer Society. AIBS American Institute of Biological Sciences. Amplification a process for producing an increase in pertinent genetic material. ASBREM Armed Services Biomedical Research Evaluation and Management Committee. ASCN American Society for Clinical Nutrition. ASCO American Society of Clinical Oncology. ASNS American Society for Nutritional Sciences. Ataxia telangiectasia autosomal recessive disorder of the nervous system; carriers of the gene are more sensitive to radiation and have a higher risk of cancer. Atypical hyperplasia proliferation of cells showing nuclear atypicality, especially as scattered cells. BAA Broad Agency Announcement. BCL1 cell cycle gene overexpressed in parathyroid adenomas and breast cancers; rearranged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia; also known as PRAD1 and Cyclin D1. BCRP Breast Cancer Research Program.

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A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor-suppressor genes thought to be linked to genetic breast and ovarian cancer. Carcinoma in situ a lesion observed most commonly in stratified squamous epithelium and characterized by cytological changes of the types associated with invasive carcinoma, but with the pathologic process limited to the lining epithelium and without histologic evidence of extension to adjacent structures. CDA Career Development Award. CRISP Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects. CT scan computed tomography scan. Works by using radiation to visually cut parts of the body in cross-sectional slices. DHHS Department of Health and Human Services. Digital mammography technique of using a dedicated electronic detector system to computerize and display the x-ray information from conventional mammography. DOD Department of Defense. DOE Department of Energy. DROLS Defense Research On-Line System. DTIC Defense Technical Information Center. Ductal carcinoma in situ ductal cancer cells that have not grown outside of their site of origin, sometimes referred to as precancer. DVA Department of Veteran Affairs. DWHRP Defense Women's Health Research Program. ERBB2 V-erb avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2; also known as NEU and HER2. FedRIP Federal Research in Progress. FHIT Fragile histidine triad gene. A tumor suppressor gene mutated in lung, head and neck, intestinal, and breast cancers. Gene a functional unit of heredity which occupies a specific place or locus on a chromosome. HBCU/MIs Historically black colleges and universities and other minority institutions. HER2 V-erb avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2; also known as ERBB2 and NEU.

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A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research HRT hormone replacement therapy. HUSB transgenic mouse husbandry. Hyperplasia an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor formation, whereby the bulk of the part or organ may be increased. IDEA Innovative Developmental and Exploratory Awards. INFO information systems. Invasive cancer cancers capable of growing beyond their site of origin and invading neighboring tissue. IOM Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. IP Integration Panel. Lactiferous gland milk-producing glands. Li-Fraumeni syndrome a dominant cancer syndrome in which gene carriers have a high risk of childhood sarcomas, early onset breast cancer, brain tumors, leukemia, and adrenocortical carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma in situ abnormal cells within the lobule which do not form lumps; can serve as a marker of future cancer risk. Lymphedema swelling as a result of obstruction of lymphatic vessels or lymph nodes and the accumulation of large amounts of lymph in the affected region. Malignant in reference to a neoplasm, having the property of locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis; cancerous. Mammography roentgenographic examination of the breast by means of x-rays, ultrasound, nuclear magnetic resonance, and so on. Metastasis spread of cancer to another organ, usually through the bloodstream. Micrometastases microscopic and as yet undetectable spread of tumor cells to other organs. Monoclonal antibody an antibody produced by a clone or genetically homogenous population of hybrid cells; hybrid cells are cloned to establish cell lines producing a specific antibody MRI magnetic resonance imaging. MYC protooncogene homologous to myelocytomatosis virus.

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A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research NAPBC National Action Plan on Breast Cancer. NBCC National Breast Cancer Coalition. NCI National Cancer Institute. Neoplasm new growth; tumor. NEU V-erb avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2; also known as ERBB2 and HER2. NIA New Investigator Award. NIH National Institutes of Health. Noninvasive cancer malignant tumors that do not spread throughout the body tissues NSF National Science Foundation. Nulliparous never having borne children. OIA Other Investigator-Initiated Award. Oncogenes tumor genes present in the body that can be activated by carcinogens and cause cells to grow uncontrollably. PET positron emission tomography. p53 tumor suppressor gene. Phytoestrogen estrogen compounds in plants. PMT Program Management Team. POST postdoctoral fellowships. PRAD1 cell cycle gene overexpressed in parathyroid adenomas and breast cancers, rearranged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia; also known as BCL1 and Cyclin D1. PREF predoctoral fellowships. PTP predoctoral training programs. Radionucleotide imaging injection of radioactive agents which accumulate in cancer cells and can be detected. Radiotherapy medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic or particulate radiations in the treatment of disease. RaDiUS Research and Development in the U.S. Database. REG enhancement of existing cancer registries or new registries of high-risk individuals. Retinoids class of keratolytic drugs derived from retinoic acid. RTA Research Technical Assistant. RTP Research with Translational Potential. SAIC Science Applications International Corporation. SBA Small Business Administration. SBIR Small Business in Research Program.

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A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research SDBs Small Disadvantaged Businesses. SHAR other innovative shared resources. Somatic mutation uninherited mutation. Systemic therapy treatment involving the whole body, usually using drugs. Transformation morphological and physiological changes resulting from infection of the cell by an oncogenic virus, and the subsequent cell-virus coexistence. TSG101 tumor-suppressor gene mutated in breast cancers. UIS United Information Systems, Inc. USAMRAA U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity. USAMRMC U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture. Virtual reality imaging interactive computer graphic simulations that can be used to provide a three-dimensional visualization of an organ or tissue.

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