Telephone Interview with Steve Crane Tuesday July 23, 1996, 9 a.m.

1. Based on your experience and familiarity with the fellows and the programs, what did the Pew program really accomplish? What are the most important contributions?

The most important contribution has been to create a network of people who continue to interact and who continue to have important positions in the policy system, both public and private policy. These people understand and know each other and are able to get things done. The policy system does not work through formal authority channels but most often through informal channels, and it's not what you know but who you know that counts; the networking was really important. Secondly, I think that the Pew program got some people involved in health policy from perspectives that would not otherwise have been present. This relates a lot to what the Boston University (BU)/Brandeis program specifically intended to do. One of the core concepts for the program was to create a shortened, highly focused program that would reduce the time and cost barriers so that people who were already actively engaged in health care concerns could come back and get that doctoral education and go out and be effective. More than just getting busy people, what we wanted to do was to get people from nontraditional sectors like business to come in and to begin to create a different type of cadre of people who could span both public-and private-sector concerns. At the time that this program was started there was an awakening of the notion that in fact if change was going to occur (and we had no sense that it was going to occur as rapidly or as dramatically as it has), we had to get policy issues out of the public sector and involve the private sector. So, the whole focus, at least of the Boston University side of the BU/Brandeis program, was to try to create links with the business community where attempts were already being made to control costs, improve quality, and gain a handle on what was going on in the health care system. I think that was a pretty significant contribution of the program in total as well as one of the major contributions of at least the BU side of the BU/Brandeis combine.

We can also say that we identified a very bright group of dedicated people who were trained and connected to some of the major policy leaders in the country, and we probably shortened the amount of time that it took them to become effective in the system. The other great thing of the Pew program was the many different opportunities the stu-

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