In the U.S. context, these issues have also been explored in a national assessment of U.S. commercial technology policy commissioned by the Competitiveness Policy Council in 1998. See Branscomb and Keller, op. cit.


See Gerald J. Hane, "The Real Lessons of Japanese Research Consortia," Issues in Science and Technology Winter 1993-94, pp. 56-62.


Dean Takahashi, "U.S.-Japan Chip Pact Could Facilitate Push to Manufacture Larger Equipment," The Wall Street Journal, August 5, 1996, p. B5.


"IBM Nado Kikaku-an: Bei Go-sha Yuza Shudo e Kessoku," (Standards agreement between IBM and others: five American user-companies take the lead), Nihon Keizai Shimbun, May 5, 1995, p. 1.


Reuters, "Wait and See on DVD, Analysts Say," August 15, 1997.


Toward the end of the Uruguay Round negotiations, concerns were raised in the United States about the implications of emerging rules governing R&D subsidies. The U.S. government sought and achieved modification of these provisions.

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