7  

Edward B. Roberts, "Benchmarking the Strategic Management Of Technology, Part 2," Research-Technology Management, March-April 1995, p. 19. In his recent book, Emerging Patterns of Innovation: Sources of Japan's Technological Edge (1995), Professor Kodama provides a detailed account of his theory of demand articulation. He addresses questions as to how it differs from technology-push vs. demand-pull analysis and how it can be used as an analytical tool.

8  

This concept was described by Sei-ichi Takayanagi at the meeting of the U.S.-Japan Corporate Innovation Task Force (September 11-13, 1994) in a paper entitled Corporate Technology Stock Model: Determining the Corporate R&D Expenditure and Restructuring R&D Organization. This paper was based on Dr. Takayanagi's original publication "Research and Development Reviewed from the Viewpoint of Assets" (in Japanese) from the keynote speech of the Proceedings of the Symposium of the Japan Society for Science Policy and Research Management, June 4, 1993, pp. 3-6. Also, the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the Department of Commerce has created a test account which treats R&D as an investment. See Department of Commerce, "A Satellite Account for Research and Development," Survey of Current Business, November 1994, pp. 37-71.

9  

Martin Kenney and Richard Florida, Beyond Mass Production: The Japanese System and Its Transfer to the United States (N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1993)

10  

Peter F. Drucker, op. cit. and Nonaka and Takeuchi, op. cit.

11  

Richard Florida, "The Globalization of R&D: Results of a Survey of Foreign-Affiliated R&D Laboratories in the USA," Research Policy , v. 26, 1997, pp. 85-103.



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