3  

Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion.

4  

Lewis M. Branscomb and James Keller, eds., Investing in Innovation: A Research and Innovation Policy that Works (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998).

5  

Motivations and context for the Basic Law and Basic Plan are covered in "Constructing a New Global Partnership: Science and Technology as an Investment for the Future," address by Minister of State for Science and Technology Hidenao Nakagawa at the National Academy of Sciences, August 8, 1996.

6  

Consortium is a generic term meaning "an agreement, combination, or group (as of companies) formed to undertake an enterprise beyond the resources of any one member." This report discusses both consortia that set de facto technology standards, some of which involve a formal organization, and consortia that perform R&D through a dedicated organization, such as SEMATECH. The report will refer to the latter as "research consortia."

7  

Michael Borrus, presentation to the Joint Task Force meeting, August 1994.



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