An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements

Panel on Atmospheric Effects of Aviation

Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1997



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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements Panel on Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this project was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant NASW-4938 order no. 109. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the above-mentioned agency. International Standard Book Number 0-309-05846-5 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area) Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements PANEL ON ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS OF AVIATION ALBERT J. KAEHN, Jr. (Chair), Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force, retired * DONALD W. BAHR, retired (formerly with General Electric Aircraft Engines) JACK G. CALVERT, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANTONY D. CLARKE, University of Hawaii, Honolulu * WILLIAM E. COOPER, Michigan State University, East Lansing DIETER H. EHHALT, Institut für Atmosphärische Chemie, Jülich, Germany CLAIRE GRANIER, Université Paris, France; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, Colorado * EDWARD GREITZER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES R. HOLTON, University of Washington, Seattle HAROLD S. JOHNSTON, University of California, Berkeley * KONRAD MAUERSBERGER, Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER, Environmental Defense Fund, New York, New York RUTH A. RECK, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois W. GEORGE N. SLINN, Cascade Scientific Research Corporation, Richland, Washington KNUT H. STAMNES, University of Alaska, Fairbanks YUK L. YUNG, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Staff WILLIAM A. SPRIGG, Director ELLEN F. RICE, Program Officer DORIS BOUADJEMI, Administrative Assistant *   Members of the Emissions working group

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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE ERIC J. BARRON (Co-Chair), Pennsylvania State University, University Park JAMES R. MAHONEY (Co-Chair), International Technology Corporation, Torrance, California SUSAN K. AVERY, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder PETER M. BANKS, ERIM, Ann Arbor, Michigan LANCE F. BOSART, State University of New York, Albany FRANCO EINAUDI, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland MARVIN A. GELLER, State University of New York, Stony Brook DONALD M. HUNTEN, University of Arizona, Tucson CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts WITOLD F. KRAJEWSKI, The University of Iowa, Iowa City THOMAS J. LENNON, Sonalysts, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia MARK R. SCHOEBERL, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado JOANNE SIMPSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland NIEN DAK SZE, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts Staff WILLIAM A. SPRIGG, Director LOWELL SMITH, Senior Program Officer H. FRANK EDEN, Senior Program Officer DAVID H. SLADE, Senior Program Officer ELLEN F. RICE, Reports Officer DORIS BOUADJEMI, Administrative Assistant KELLY NORSINGLE, Senior Project Assistant TENECIA A. BROWN, Project Assistant

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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington, Seattle THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DEBRA S. KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts PERRY L. McCARTY, Stanford University, California JUDITH E. McDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN K. SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park Staff STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNIK, Assistant Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer JEANETTE SPOON, Acting Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst

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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements Preface This interim assessment is a product of the NRC Panel on the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation (PAEAN). PAEAN consists of sixteen people selected to provide expertise in relevant fields that include field observations, laboratory chemistry, atmospheric dynamics and modeling, aircraft combustors, climate, and public policy. The charge from its NASA sponsor, the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP), is to provide assessment of and guidance to AEAP by evaluating the appropriateness of the AEA project's research plan, appraising the project-sponsored results relative to the current state of scientific knowledge, identifying key scientific uncertainties, and suggesting research activities likely to reduce those uncertainties. AEAP has six primary elements: Global Modeling, Atmospheric Observations, Laboratory Studies, Operational Scenarios, Near-Field Interactions, and Emissions Characterization. This report examines the last two project elements, which are both exhaust-related. Emissions Characterization is determining the constituents discharged under cruise operating conditions for current and future engines, and Near-Field Interactions is exploring how chemical, dynamic, or physical processes in aircraft wakes can alter these constituents. The effects of the current subsonic fleet are of great concern at present, and the Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions project elements are vital to assessing those effects correctly. This interim report reviews the two elements and recommends some changes in emphasis. PAEAN has met three times as a panel, and each of its working groups—supersonic/stratospheric, subsonic/tropospheric, and emissions—has met on its own. The emissions group put together the initial draft of this document, and we

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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements thank them for their efforts. We appreciate the skill and perseverance of our staff officer and editor, Ellen Rice, and the administrative support of Doris Bouadjemi. Last, we are grateful to the many people, both those involved with AEAP and those outside it, who through briefings and reports kept us apprised of these two elements of the project and related work. Albert J. Kaehn, Jr. PAEAN Chair

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An Interim Assessment of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions Elements Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1     INTRODUCTION   2     EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION   4     Emission Constituents to be Measured,   4     Venues for Conducting Emission Measurements,   6     Methods of Obtaining Emission Measurements,   8     NEAR-FIELD INTERACTIONS   10     Analytical Model Development Activities,   10     Measurement Activities,   11     RECOMMENDATIONS   13     Emissions Characterization,   13     Near-Field Interactions,   14     REFERENCES   15     ACRONYMS AND OTHER ABBREVIATIONS   16

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