Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space

Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract number NASW-4938 Task Order 112. Any opinions, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-68305 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05744-2 Available in limited supply from: Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. 202-334-2855 Additional copies are available for sale from National Academy Press , 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. 1-800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313. http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE ON ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR HUMAN SUPPORT IN SPACE JAMES BAGIAN (committee chair), Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, Michigan NORMAN BADLER (chair, Space Human Factors Subcommittee), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia BRUCE BUGBEE, Utah State University, Logan HARRIET BURGE, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts ELIZABETH CANTWELL (chair, Environmental Monitoring and Control Subcommittee), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California SUSAN DOLL (chair, Advanced Life Support Subcommittee), Boeing Defense and Space, Huntsville, Alabama DONALD GARDNER, Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Raleigh, North Carolina ANDREW HOFFMAN, East Windsor Associates, Broad Brook, Connecticut JOSEPH KERWIN (chair, Extravehicular Activities Subcommittee), Krug Life Sciences, Inc., Houston, Texas ROBERT MOSER, Canyon Consulting Corporation, Chama, New Mexico MARY MUSGRAVE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge DAVA NEWMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge FREDERICK G. POHLAND, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania GAVRIEL SALVENDY, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ROBERT E. SMYLIE, Smylie Associates, Reston, Virginia Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Staff JOANN CLAYTON-TOWNSEND, Director NOEL ELDRIDGE, Study Director (November 1995–December 1996) TED MORRISON, Senior Project Assistant and Report Manager

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AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD JOHN D. WARNER (chair), The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington STEVEN AFTERGOOD, Federation of American Scientists, Washington, D.C. GEORGE A. BEKEY, University of Southern California, Los Angeles GUION S. BLUFORD, JR., NYMA Incorporated, Brook Park, Ohio RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colorado BARBARA C. CORN, B C Consulting Incorporated, Searcy, Arkansas STEVEN D. DORFMAN, Hughes Telecommunications and Space, Los Angeles, California DONALD C. FRASER, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts DANIEL HASTINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge FREDERICK HAUCK, International Technology Underwriters, Bethesda, Maryland WILLIAM H. HEISER, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado WILLIAM HOOVER, U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia BENJAMIN HUBERMAN, Huberman Consulting Group, Washington, D.C. FRANK E. MARBLE, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena C. JULIAN MAY, Tech/Ops International Incorporated, Kennesaw, Georgia GRACE M. ROBERTSON, Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California GEORGE SPRINGER, Stanford University, Stanford, California Staff JOANN CLAYTON-TOWNSEND, Director

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Preface This report was prepared in response to a NASA request for an evaluation of programs of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications that will apply to NASA's long-term goals and the eventual human exploration of space. The study committee first met on March 27 and 28, 1996, in Washington, D.C. For the next five months, the committee met at all relevant NASA centers to gather information. The last meeting was held in September 1996, but subsequent substantive organizational changes in NASA that became known to the committee during the final drafting and editing process are noted herein. The committee would have been unable to produce this report without the cooperation and assistance of those individuals at NASA who are the heart of these programs. Their dedication and responsiveness were invaluable. I would also like to recognize the dedication of the committee members, who made time in their already busy schedules to carry out this study and to arrive at consensus on the contents of the report. They did this in the best tradition of voluntarism and tirelessly looked for ways to enhance the content and value of the report. Lastly, I would like to recognize Noel Eldridge and Ted Morrison of the National Research Council (NRC) for their outstanding work during all aspects of the study and report preparation. Without the tireless and superb efforts of the committee and the NRC staff this report could never have been completed. For me, it has been an extreme pleasure to have had the opportunity to work with these individuals during the preparation of this report. Above all, it is my hope that the information contained herein will be of use to NASA and the nation as it contemplates the future human exploration of the solar system. JAMES BAGIAN, M.D., P.E. CHAIR, COMMITTEE ON ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR HUMAN SUPPORT IN SPACE

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Table of Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   10     Background   11     Approach   12     Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Advanced Human Support Technology Program   14     Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications Work at NASA Centers   15     Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration   17     References   21 2   Advanced Life Support Systems   22     Introduction   22     Technical and Scientific Topics Related to Advanced Life Support   24     Programmatic Topics Related to Advanced Life Support Systems   40     High Priority Areas for Advanced Life Support Technology Research and Development   47     Relationship between the Advanced Life Support Program and the Success of Future NASA Missions   49     Program Objectives and Milestones   49     Overall Scientific and Technical Quality   51     Program Requirements   52     Program Direction and Organization   53     Synergism with Other Programs   56     Dual-Use Technologies   58     References   60

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3   Environmental Monitoring and Control   61     Introduction   61     Technical and Scientific Topics Related to Environmental Monitoring and Control   62     Current Status of the Environmental Monitoring and Control Program   68     High Priority Areas for Environmental Monitoring and Control Technology Research and Development   71     Relationship between the Environmental Monitoring and Control Program and the Success of Future NASA Missions   73     Program Objectives and Milestones   73     Overall Scientific and Technical Quality   75     Program Requirements   76     Program Direction and Organization   77     Synergism with Other Programs   79     Dual-Use Technologies   80     References   81 4   Extravehicular Activity Systems   82     Introduction   82     Technical and Scientific Topics Related to Extravehicular Activity Systems   84     Programmatic Topics Related to Extravehicular Activity   87     High Priority Areas for Extravehicular Activity Technology Research and Development   90     Relationship between the Extravehicular Activity Program and the Success of Future NASA Missions   92     Program Objectives and Milestones   92     Overall Scientific and Technical Quality   93     Program Requirements   93     Program Direction and Organization   94     Synergism with Other Programs   95     Dual-Use Technologies   96     References   96 5   Space Human Factors   97     Introduction   97     Technical and Scientific Topics Related to Space Human Factors   98     Programmatic Topics Related to Space Human Factors   101     High Priority Areas for Space Human Factors Technology Research and Development   102     Relationship between the Space Human Factors Program and the Success of Future NASA Missions   103

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    Program Objectives and Milestones   104     Overall Scientific and Technical Quality   105     Program Requirements   106     Program Direction and Organization   108     Synergism with Other Programs   110     Dual-Use Technologies   111     References   112 6   General Findings and Recommendations   113     Acronyms and Abbreviations   116     Appendices         A Statement of Task   121     B Memorandum of Understanding Consolidating Human Support Research in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications   123     C Subcommittee Members and Meetings   127     D Letter Requesting Comments from Industry   129     E Analysis of Advanced Life Support Technology Development Projects   131     F Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   133

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Figures and Tables Figures 1-1   Budgets for the advanced human support programs   13 1-2   Long-term goals for the human exploration of space   19 2-1   Principal relationships in a bioregenerative life support system   31 2-2   Fully closed food loop   33 2-3   Partially closed food loop   34 2-4   FY96 NASA funding for advanced life support   41 2-5   NASA headquarters technology development road map, 1995 to 2015   43 2-6a   JSC technology development and validation road map, 1995 to 2010   44 2-6b   JSC ALS road map, post-2010   45 4-1   NASA EVA Project Office organization chart   87 4-2   NASA funding for advanced EVA systems, 1985 to 1996   89 Tables 1-1   OLMSA-Sponsored Research in Human Support at NASA Centers   16 2-1   Metabolic Values for Normal Spacecraft Operation of One Astronaut   23 2-2   Summary of Advanced Life Support System Functions   26 2-3   Comparison of Design Factors for the Development of Life Support Systems   38 3-1   Major Categories of Contaminants   62 3-2   Potential Sources for Some Major Contaminants   63 3-3   Microbiological Monitoring and Control Prioritization   65 3-4   Goals and Objectives of the EMC Program   69 3-5   EMC Schedule and Program Deliverables   70 3-6   Funded Technical Development Projects (1995–1996)   70

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4-1   Current Evolutionary (or Zero-G EMU) Technology Projects   90 4-2   Current Revolutionary (or Lunar/Mars) Technology Projects   91 5-1   Topics of Interest to the SHF Program   99 E-1   Compilation of the Advanced Life Support Technology Development Projects   132