James Bagian (chair) is a former astronaut, a physician, and a professional engineer. He is the deputy director for the Regional and State Programs Division, Office of Mobile Sources, of the Environmental Protection Agency. In this position, he is leading the effort to ensure that EPA air emission policies regarding mobile sources are consistent, data driven, and supported by scientific data. While he was a NASA astronaut, Dr. Bagian flew on the 1991 Spacelab Life Sciences-1 mission, the first Space Shuttle mission dedicated to life sciences research. He also flew on STS-29 in 1989 and trained as the lead contingency EVA crewmember for both these missions. Dr. Bagian was the astronaut office coordinator for Space Shuttle payload software and crew equipment and served as an investigator and diver in the aftermath of the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger. Before the Space Shuttle returned to service, he helped formulate and manage the design, development, and testing of the current Space Shuttle high-altitude escape suit and was one of the team leaders for the overall project to design, develop, and test the Space Shuttle escape system. Dr. Bagian has authored papers in the fields of human factors and environmental and aerospace medicine and has served on several relevant panels and review committees. Dr. Bagian also is a pilot (with more than 1,500 hours of flying time in propeller and jet aircraft, helicopters, and gliders) and parachutist, as well as a colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserves with the Air Rescue Service.
Norman Badler is the director of the Center for Human Modeling and Simulation and a professor in the Computer and Information Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania. The Center for Human Modeling and Simulation studies computational models of human behavior and structure, both external
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Appendix F Biographical Sketches of Committee Members James Bagian (chair) is a former astronaut, a physician, and a professional engineer. He is the deputy director for the Regional and State Programs Division, Office of Mobile Sources, of the Environmental Protection Agency. In this position, he is leading the effort to ensure that EPA air emission policies regarding mobile sources are consistent, data driven, and supported by scientific data. While he was a NASA astronaut, Dr. Bagian flew on the 1991 Spacelab Life Sciences-1 mission, the first Space Shuttle mission dedicated to life sciences research. He also flew on STS-29 in 1989 and trained as the lead contingency EVA crewmember for both these missions. Dr. Bagian was the astronaut office coordinator for Space Shuttle payload software and crew equipment and served as an investigator and diver in the aftermath of the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger. Before the Space Shuttle returned to service, he helped formulate and manage the design, development, and testing of the current Space Shuttle high-altitude escape suit and was one of the team leaders for the overall project to design, develop, and test the Space Shuttle escape system. Dr. Bagian has authored papers in the fields of human factors and environmental and aerospace medicine and has served on several relevant panels and review committees. Dr. Bagian also is a pilot (with more than 1,500 hours of flying time in propeller and jet aircraft, helicopters, and gliders) and parachutist, as well as a colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserves with the Air Rescue Service. Norman Badler is the director of the Center for Human Modeling and Simulation and a professor in the Computer and Information Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania. The Center for Human Modeling and Simulation studies computational models of human behavior and structure, both external
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(movement) and internal (physiological and cognitive), and builds the Jack software, which is used at dozens of sites worldwide for human figure animation and human factors analysis. Dr. Badler earned his Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Toronto in 1975. The major foci of his research include computational anthropometry; computational approaches to human movement animation; and graphical and natural language interfaces for task simulation. Bruce Bugbee is a professor in the Plants, Soils, and Biometeorology Department at Utah State University. Dr. Bugbee conducts both basic and applied research on photosynthesis, respiration, and plant nutrition. His research to study the beneficial effects of vegetation in contaminated soils has been funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and his work on measuring and modeling plant metabolic rates for bioregenerative life support systems is sponsored by NASA. He has authored papers and book chapters on research and commercial hydroponics techniques for growing crops on Earth and on the type of root-zone environment necessary for growing crops and recycling wastes on a lunar base, using either hydroponics or the lunar regolith as a growth medium. Harriet Burge is an associate professor of Environmental Microbiology at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Burge was the vice chair of the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Health Effects of Indoor Allergens, which produced the 1993 report, Indoor Allergens: Assessing and Controlling Adverse Health Effects. She also served on an earlier National Research Council study on airliner cabin air quality. Her expertise is in aerobiology (the occurrence, transportation, and health effects of airborne materials, such as viruses, pollen, or pollutants). Her research includes methods for the sensitive and precise monitoring of biological aerosols, and the prevalence and health effects of fungal aeroallergens and toxins, bacterial aerosols, and volatile organic compounds released by microorganisms during metabolism. She has been involved in research on the microbiology of spacecraft. Elizabeth Cantwell is an environmental scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Dr. Cantwell holds B.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering, as well as a B.A. in human behavior. Her work at Livermore focuses on input/output and total cost modeling of the environmental impacts of industrial systems. She has authored papers in the fields of life support, systems engineering, microgravity fluid physics, and industrial ecology. She has previously held positions with the Environmental Protection Agency (developing air regulations) and NASA's Ames Research Center (designing life support processors for air, water, and solid waste). Susan Doll is an engineer with experience in systems engineering and medical research. She is currently a technical specialist at the Boeing Life Support
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Technology Center in Huntsville, Alabama. For the last two years, she has been the lead technical liaison for Boeing's activities with a major Russian provider of life support hardware (NIICHIMMASH) and with the Siberian branch of the Russian Institute for Biophysics, a world leader in bioregenerative technology research. Ms. Doll's previous work at Boeing included system integration for the ISS environmental control and life support system (ECLSS), and life support system concept development for lunar and Mars applications. Ms. Doll earned a B.S. degree in medical technology and an M.S. degree in alternative energy engineering. Her thesis focused on the energy dynamics and carbon cycle of crops inside the Biosphere 2 closed habitat. She has been active in the field, giving seminars and lectures at the International Space University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard, as well as serving as program chairman for the first two International Conferences in Life Support and Biospherics. Donald Gardner is an expert in environmental and occupational toxicology. Dr. Gardner currently chairs the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations of the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, which has prepared three reports for NASA since 1992. He is currently an independent consultant. He retired as vice president and chief scientist of Man Tech Environmental Technology in 1994. From 1971 to 1980, Dr. Gardner was chief of the Biomedical Research Branch at the Environmental Protection Agency and, from 1980 to 1982, was director of the Inhalation Toxicology Division. In addition to serving on several National Research Council panels, he has served on advisory committees for the Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, and for the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health. Andrew Hoffman is an expert in human space systems, having spent 33 years in the U.S. space program in technical, operations, and management positions. His areas of technical expertise include extravehicular mobility units, space vehicle life support, thermal control, and system analysis. He is currently the president of East Windsor Associates, a consulting firm in aerospace technology, manufacturing, and management, and was previously the executive vice president of Hamilton Standard Aerospace. Earlier in his career, Mr. Hoffman was the program manager for Hamilton Standard's Lunar Module life support system, Skylab crew equipment, and the Space Shuttle life support system. He has recently been involved in ad hoc NASA studies to evaluate the plans for Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications facilities for the International Space Station, as well as to evaluate the use of the current Space Shuttle extravehicular activity suit to meet the requirements for the International Space Station. Joseph Kerwin is the president of Krug Life Sciences, Inc. Dr. Kerwin was the first medical doctor to go into space. In 1973, Dr. Kerwin was science pilot on the
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Skylab 2 mission; he performed a three-hour space walk to repair the damaged Skylab solar arrays. Prior to joining NASA as an astronaut, he was a naval aviator with more than 4,000 hours of flying time, as well as a flight surgeon. As a naval detailed to NASA, he held many positions, including the director of space and life sciences at the Johnson Space Center and chief of the mission specialist and scientist-astronaut branches of the Astronaut Office. At Lockheed Martin, he has led projects related to the development of an assured crew return vehicle and extravehicular activity systems for the International Space Station. He is also the inventor of the simplified aid for EVA rescue (SAFER), which was subsequently flown on the Space Shuttle and is the planned standard EVA rescue equipment for Space Station astronauts. Robert Moser is a member of the Institute of Medicine and an internist-cardiologist with experience in aerospace medicine going back to the beginning of the U.S. manned space program. He is currently a senior medical consultant working for Canyon Consulting Corporation in Chama, New Mexico, and a visiting professor at the Uniform Services Health Science Center and a clinical professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of New Mexico. He is a former member of the National Research Council's Space Studies Board (1989–1993), and a former member of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board's Committee on the Space Station (1991–1993). Earlier in his career, Dr. Moser was a medical flight controller in the Mercury program and a member of the medical evaluation team for the Gemini program. Since 1960, he has served on many medical advisory and editorial boards and has contributed to many studies and reports for the National Research Council and other organizations. Mary Musgrave is a professor in the Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology at Louisiana State University. She earned her doctorate from Duke University in botany and cell and molecular biology, and her current research is in the area of plant stress physiology, including the effects of space flight on flowering and seed production and the responses of plants to hypoxia. Dr. Musgrave has participated in planning meetings for joint U.S./U.S.S.R., U.S./ Russian, and U.S./Ukrainian space biology research. She has also abstracted Russian technical articles and books. Dr. Musgrave has been the principal investigator for three flight experiments to grow plants in the Space Shuttle orbiter middeck and is currently president of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology. Dava Newman is an assistant professor of aeronautics and astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Newman received her B.S. in aerospace engineering from Notre Dame, and Master's degrees in aeronautics and astronautics as well as technology and policy. She received her doctorate in aerospace biomedical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Her multidisciplinary research in extravehicular activity systems and the dynamics and control of astronaut motion combines aerospace bioengineering, control and dynamics, human interface technology, and systems analysis and design; the work is being carried out through flight experiments, ground-based simulations, and mathematical and computer modeling. Dr. Newman has flown two previous spaceflight experiments and is the principal investigator for the enhanced dynamic load sensors experiment currently on the Russian Mir Space Station (April 1996 to December 1997), which studies the crew-induced dynamic response inside the spacecraft. Frederick G. Pohland is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a former president of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers. He holds the Edward R. Weidlein Chair of Environmental Engineering and is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Pohland earned his Ph.D. from Purdue University in 1961, and his research and teaching emphases have been in environmental engineering operations and processes; environmental chemistry and microbiology; solid and hazardous waste management; industrial waste minimization, treatment, and disposal; and environmental impact monitoring and assessment. He is currently a member of the National Research Council's Committee on U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Research and the Committee on Evaluation Protocols for Commercializing Innovative Remediation Technologies. Gavriel Salvendy is the NEC Professor of Industrial Engineering at Purdue University and a member of the National Academy of Engineering, elected "for fundamental contributions to and professional leadership in human, physical, and cognitive aspects of engineering systems." He is the recipient of the Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov Medal of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, holds an honorary doctorate from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is the author or co-author of more than 300 research publications, including 15 books. Dr. Salvendy has advised corporations and government agencies in 23 countries on the human side of effective design, implementation, and management of advanced technologies in the workplace. He earned his Ph.D. in engineering production at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. Robert Edwin (Ed) Smylie is a mechanical engineer and technical manager with extensive experience in extravehicular activity systems and related technologies. He has held responsible positions in several major aerospace organizations, including Grumman's Space Station Integration Division, RCA's Government Communications Programs, NASA headquarters, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and NASA's Johnson Space Center (1962 to 1973), where he was chief of the Crew Systems Division from 1968 to 1973. Since leaving NASA in 1983, Mr. Smylie has been involved in several reviews of related aspects of the NASA
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program (recently he was a member of the NASA Federal Laboratory Review ordered by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In addition to holding a master's degree in mechanical engineering from Mississippi State University, Mr. Smylie is also a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloane School of Management.