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those people who are going to be most susceptible to certain training injuries. For example, if you could look at things such as bone mass, muscle mass, and some of these things, then perhaps this could be used to implement some sort of a training regimen that would strengthen those individuals predicted to be susceptible before they really get into the usual training program, which may cause these injuries. In other words, do some pretraining build-up of some of these conditions. I do not know whether this is a practical use for many of these techniques or not.

VERNON YOUNG: I would like to go back to Karl Friedl's interesting presentation and ask you to elaborate a little further on the change in the hydration of the lean body mass and whether you think this is extracellular, interstitial, or from another site. I ask this question as a follow-up to Doug Wilmore's area of concern, and because there is a lot of interest now in the role of cell volume in metabolic regulation and the role of the osmotic status of cells in gene transcription, even.

I think it is a really interesting observation, and we should not leave it at that. We should try to understand what it means from a mechanistic as well as a metabolic and functional point of view. Can you elaborate a little further, Karl?

KARL FRIEDL: Well, I agree it is interesting. I am not sure that we can elaborate too much over what we presented. It is there, and Ancel Keys never could explain why they had that. They had lower extremity swelling, so it seemed likely to be interstitial, at least certainly extracellular. We have Rangers that end up with a lot of these knee problems. Dr. Vogel showed you a slide of four pairs of knees that looked like examples of cellulitis, but some of those may be bursitis. They may even just be related to this hydration, and they may have gotten swollen knees from this excess fluid.

There is a different look to these guys. There was one more slide I did not show you where we had looked at five Kenyan runners who had the same sum for skinfold thickness that we had at the end of Ranger training. There was a big difference between these guys and the Rangers. First of all, in the Kenyans' appearance, the skin is sort of tight, and the Rangers have almost a squishy look to them. Just subjectively, there are some differences there, and we cannot explain it further.

DOUGLAS WILMORE: Karl, do you have biopsies on any of those people?

KARL FRIEDL: No. People have been suggesting that we should try to get those.



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