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INDEX

This index is organized in sections according to the part of the book covered.

I
COMMITTEE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 16

Anthropometric measurements, 2, 7, 8, 9, 12, 19, 52, 53, 54, 66, 67

fat mass, 6, 12, 13

See also BMI;

CAT;

Dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry;

MRI

Antibodies, 2, 25, 27, 30-32, 61-63, 66-67, 68

cloning of, 31-32

production of, 25-26, 32

See also CDR;

Immune function;

Polymerase chain reaction;

Vaccines and vaccination

Army Regulations, 7, 12

B

BC. See Body composition assessment

BIA. See Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA)

BIS. See Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

BMD. See Body mineral density (BMD)

BMI. See Body mass index (BMI)

Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), 9, 12, 13, 52, 53, 54, 66, 67

Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), 9, 52



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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability INDEX This index is organized in sections according to the part of the book covered. I COMMITTEE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS A Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 16 Anthropometric measurements, 2, 7, 8, 9, 12, 19, 52, 53, 54, 66, 67 fat mass, 6, 12, 13 See also BMI; CAT; Dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry; MRI Antibodies, 2, 25, 27, 30-32, 61-63, 66-67, 68 cloning of, 31-32 production of, 25-26, 32 See also CDR; Immune function; Polymerase chain reaction; Vaccines and vaccination Army Regulations, 7, 12 B BC. See Body composition assessment BIA. See Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) BIS. See Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) BMD. See Body mineral density (BMD) BMI. See Body mass index (BMI) Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), 9, 12, 13, 52, 53, 54, 66, 67 Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), 9, 52

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability Biological warfare, 62 Vibrio cholerae, 29 See also Poisons and poisoning Board on Military Supplies, vii Body composition assessment, ix, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20, 51, 52-54, 66, 67. See also Anthropometric measurements; BIA; BIS; CAT; DLW; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; FFM; Hydrodensitometry; MRI; NIR spectroscopy; PET; Ultrasound Body mass index (BMI), 7, 67 weight-for-height screen, 7, 12 body fat, 8, 66 Body measurements. See Anthropometric measurements Bone mineral density (BMD), 8. See also Body composition assessment; Osteoporosis C CAT. See Computerized axial tomography (CAT) CDR. See Complementarity determining region (CDR) CMNR. See Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) Cardiovascular (CV) diseases risk of, 11, 13 Cell-mediated immune functions, 26-28, 61 cytokines, 24, 26-28, 32, 61-62 receptors, 26-27, 32 Cellular approach to nutrition, ix, 2, 4, 21, 51, 58-60, 66, 67-68 isolated cells, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32-33, 58-60 Cholesterol, 21 Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR), vii-xi, 1-2, 4, 5-6, 24, 38, 51, 52, 59, 62, 66, 67, 68 Complementarity determining region (CDR), 31-32 Computerized axial tomography (CAT), 2, 10, 13, 14, 52, 53, 66, 67 CAT spiral imaging, 11 Computers assessments using, 36-38, 64, 65, 67 data collection and analysis, viii, 34 interface technology, 37-38 miniaturization of, 36-37, 64, 65, 67, 68 Conclusions and recommendations, 52-68 ambulatory techniques for measurement of energy expenditure, 56-58, 66 body composition assessment, 52-54, 66, 67 functional and behavioral measures of nutritional status, 63-65, 67, 68 immune function assessment, 61-63, 66-67, 68 molecular and cellular approaches to nutrition, 58-60, 66, 67-68 tracer techniques for study of metabolism, 54-56, 66 Cost/benefit analysis, 1, 5, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61-62, 64-65 D DEXA. See Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DLW. See Doubly labeled water technique (DLW) DXA. See Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 21, 22, 23, 28, 31

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability Department of Defense (DoD), viii, 68 appropriations, 1, 4, 5, 53, 55, 57, 59-60, 62, 65, 66, 67-68 See also SBIR Diseases and disorders. See CV diseases; Enteric diseases; Infectious diseases; Respiratory diseases Doubly labeled water technique (DLW), 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66. See also Energy expenditure Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, 2, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 52, 53, 54, 66, 67 E Energy expenditure, ix, 2, 4, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66. See also DLW; FCM; Metabolism; NIR spectroscopy Enteric diseases, 29, 30 Enterotoxins, 30-31 cholera toxin (CT), 30-31 heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), 30-31 Ethnicity, 8, 52, 67 F FCM. See Foot contact monitor (FCM) Fat-free mass (FFM), 8, 11, 12, 53. See also Body composition assessment Food and food industry, vii, viii, 20. See also Military feeding systems and rations Foot contact monitor (FCM), 18, 19, 20, 21, 66 G Gender, 7, 8, 11, 13, 67 Gene expression, 21, 22, 23, 24, 30, 58-59, 66, 67-68. See also DNA; RNA H Health and nutritional status, 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, 17, 24, 33-36, 51, 54, 66 behavioral and functional measures of, ix, 2, 4, 33, 51 chronic disease risk, 7 environmental effects on, vii, viii, 12, 17, 54 food deprivation and, 35 functional and behavioral measures of, ix, 2, 4, 33, 51 hydration status, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 52, 66, 67 muscular strength, 7, 11 musculoskeletal injury risk, 7 physical fitness, 7, 11, 19 physical trauma risk, 33 See also CV diseases; Energy expenditure; Enteric diseases; Infectious diseases; Metabolism; Performance, cognitive; Performance, physical; Poisons and poisoning; Respiratory diseases Hormones, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29 Hydrodensitometry, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13 I IDS. See Iowa Driving Simulator (IDS) Imaging techniques. See Body composition assessment; CAT; MRI Immune function, ix, 2, 4, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29-33, 51, 61-63, 66, 68 monoclonal antibody and flow cytometry technology, 26

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability See also Antibodies; Cell-mediated immune functions; Hormones; Immunotherapy; Lymphocyte function; Phagocytic cell assays; Vaccines and vaccination Immunization. See Vaccines and vaccination Immunotherapy, 31, 33 Infectious diseases, 26, 27, 29, 62, 66-67, 68. See also Biological warfare; Respiratory diseases and disorders; Vaccines and vaccination Instruments and measuring devices, 8, 36-38 gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, 15 isotope ratio mass spectrometer, 15, 19 mass spectrometers, 15, 55 Motionlogger Actigraph, 36 psychomotor vigilance task, 37 simulators, 33, 65 Vigilance Monitor, 36 See also FCM; IDS In vitro assessment, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 32, 58, 59 In vivo assessment, 20, 23, 24, 25, 31, 58, 59 Iowa Driving Simulator (IDS), 37-38 Isotopes, stable, 2, 13-20, 54-56, 57, 66, 67 L Locomotion, 18, 19, 21. See also FCM Lymphocyte function, 28-29 M MFA. See Muscle function analysis (MFA) MND. See Military Nutrition Division (MND) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 66, 67. See also Body composition assessment; NMR Metabolism, ix, 2, 4, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 51, 54-57, 66 metabolites, 20-22, 54, 55, 56, 57 See also Energy expenditure; Isotopes, stable; NMR; PET; Tracer techniques Microencapsulation technology, 32, 33 Military feeding systems and rations, viii, 6, 17, 19, 35 Military Nutrition and Biochemical Division. See Military Nutrition Division (MND) Military Nutrition Division (MND), vii, 1, 4, 5, 12, 17, 51, 52, 55, 66, 67, 68. See also USARIEM Military personnel, viii, 3, 6 garrisoned, viii, 17 operational (in field operations), viii, ix, 5, 6, 12, 17, 19, 24, 35 See also Military feeding systems and rations; U.S. Army Rangers; U.S. Special Forces; Women in military Molecular approach to nutrition, ix, 2, 4, 21, 51, 58-60, 66, 67-68 Muscle contraction, involuntary, 33-34 Muscle function analysis (MFA), 34, 63-65 N NIR. See Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy NMR. See Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference on Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Body Composition Measurement, 10 Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, 9, 18, 20, 21, 56, 57, 58. See also Energy expenditure Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 16-17. See also Metabolism; MRI Nutrition. See Cellular approach to nutrition; Energy expenditure; Health and nutritional status; Immune function; Metabolism; MFA; Military feeding systems and rations; Molecular approach to nutrition; Muscle contraction, involuntary; Performance, cognitive; Performance, physical O Osteoporosis, 8. See also BMD P PET. See Positron emission tomography (PET) Performance, cognitive, vii, viii, ix, 2, 3, 5, 6, 33, 35-38, 51, 63-65, 67, 68 assessment technology, 35-38 vigilance, 37-38 See also Health and nutritional status Performance, physical, vii, viii, ix, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 35, 51, 53, 63-65. See also Health and nutritional status Phagocytic cell assays, 29 Plants and vegetation, 31, 61, 66, 68 transgenic plants, 31, 61, 66, 68 See also Potato; Tobacco and tobacco use Poisons and poisoning, 23, 29. See also Biological warfare Polymerase chain reaction, 31-33 Positron emission tomography (PET), 15, 16, 17, 55, 56. See also Metabolism Potato for oral vaccination delivery, 30 R RNA. See Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Race. See Ethnicity Radioactivity exposure to, 10, 11, 23, 52-53 Recommendations. See Conclusions and recommendations Research technologies, viii-ix ambulatory methods, ix, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 28, 33, 35-37, 53, 54, 56-58, 60, 63, 65, 66, 67 noninvasive, 3, 18, 20, 21, 34, 55, 56, 58 See also Body composition assessment; In vitro assessment; In vivo assessment; Tracer techniques Respiratory diseases and disorders, 25, 27 Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 21 mRNA, 21, 23 S Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), 1, 5, 53, 55, 57, 59 Stable isotopes. See Isotopes, stable T Tobacco and tobacco use for oral vaccination delivery, 30 Toxins. See Poisons and poisoning Trace minerals, 21, 22 zinc, 22, 23

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability Tracer techniques, ix, 2, 4, 13, 14, 15, 51, 54-56, 66. See also Isotopes, stable; Metabolism; NMR: PET U Ultrasound, 9 USAMRMC. See U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) USARIEM. See U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), vii, 68 U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, 68 U.S. Army Rangers research involving, 4, 62, 63, 67 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), vii, ix, 36, 51-52, 66, 68. See also MND U.S. Special Forces research involving, 24 V Vaccines and vaccination, 2, 25, 29-33, 59, 61-63, 66-67, 68 delivery systems, 30-31, 33, 61-63, 68 recombinant bacterial antigen for oral vaccination, 30, 33 See also Antibodies; Immune function; Infectious diseases W Women, 11, 13 Women in military, 4, 17 II THE CURRENT ARMY PROGRAM AND ITS FUTURE NEEDS A Army Regulations, 75 B Body composition assessment, 75 C Caffeine, 73 Carbohydrates, 73 F Food additives, 73-74 antioxidant mixtures, 74 choline, 73-74 creatine, 73 ergogenic additives, 73 glutamine, 74 tryptophan, 73 tyrosine, 73-74 See also Caffeine; Carbohydrates; Military feeding systems and rations Food and food industry. See Caffeine; Carbohydrates; Food additives; Millitary feeding systems and rations Food Nutrition Research and Engineering Board, 72 H Health and nutritional status, 69, 72-73, 75 combat stress, 73-74 food deprivation and, 72-74 iron supplementation, 74-75 sleep deprivation and, 72-74 I Immune function, 73-74 Immunosuppression dietary treatments to counteract, 73-74

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability M MND. See Military Nutrition Division (MND) MRDAs. See Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs) Military feeding systems and rations, 69, 72, 73, 75, 76 dietary intake (of fat, cholesterol, salt), 75 dietary intervention, 73-74 garrison feeding, 72, 75 hydration (oral) drinks, 75 Long Life Ration Packet, 74 Meal, Ready-to-Eat, 74 multi-serving tray packs, 74 New Generation Survival Ration, 74 operational rations and field feeding systems, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76 Ration, Cold Weather, 74 Ration, Lightweight, 74 See also Food additives; Military nutritional standards; Military personnel; MRDAs Military Nutrition and Biochemical Division. See MND Military Nutrition Division (MND), 72. See also USARIEM Military Nutrition Research Program, 71-76 Military nutritional standards, 74-75. See also MRDAs Military Operational Medicine Directorate, 72 Military personnel, 69-76 garrisoned, 72 operational (in field operations), 69, 72, 73, 75-76 See also Military feeding systems and rations; U.S. Army Rangers; U.S. Special Forces; Women in military Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs), 74-75 N Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center Survivability Directorate, 72 Nutrition diet, 72 dietary intervention, 73-74 See also Nutritional strategies; Performance, cognitive; Performance-enhancing ration components; Performance, physical Nutritional strategies, 72-74. See also Performance-enhancing ration components O Office of the Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology. See Food Nutrition Research and Engineering Board P Performance, cognitive, 69, 71-72, 73 Performance-enhancing ration components, 73. See also Caffeine; Carbohydrates Performance, physical, 69, 71-72, 73 R Rations. See Military feeding systems and rations S Stress, 72, 73, 74 U USAMRMC. See U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) USARIEM. See U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM)

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), 72. See also Military Operational Medicine Directorate U.S. Army Rangers research involving, 73, 75 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), 69, 72. See also MND U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command. See Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center U.S. Special Forces research involving, 74, 75 W Women in military, 74-75 dietary intake and nutritional status of, 75 iron status of, 74-75 III TECHNIQUES OF BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT A Abdominal girth, 97-100, 104 Adipose tissue (AT), 79, 85, 86, 87, 128-130, 132-133, 136-143, 144 Adolescents in military training, 82 Age, 79, 84, 85, 93 Alcohol use and abuse, 98 Anthropometric measurements, 79, 95-96, 97-113 lean mass, 81-82, 105-106 muscle mass distribution, 97-106 See also Body fat topography and physiology; CAT; Circumference equations; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; MRI; Muscle mass distribution; Skinfold equations; TBW; Underwater weighing Army Body Composition Study, 90, 99, 100 Army Medical Nutrition Laboratory, 108 Army Regulations, 83, 85, 87, 99, 107 Army War College, 99 Army Weight Control Program, 83, 85, 86, 96, 98, 105-106 Athletics Kenyan runners, 112 B BC. See Body composition assessment BIA. See Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) BMC. See Bone mineral content (BMC) BMD. See Bone mineral density (BMD) BMI. See Body mass index (BMI) Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), 80, 93, 95-96, 107, 109, 110, 111, 113, 169-186 biological parameters, 182-183 blood chemistry and, 181 body composition and, 174-176 body composition change analysis, 176 body water and, 172-174 clinical uses and limitations, 185-186 electrical parameters, 182-183 ethnicity and, 181-182

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability history of, 170-172 multifrequency bioelectrical impedance, 177-181 multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectral analysis, 179-181 performance of, 184 safety of, 183-184 segmental bioelectrical impedance, 176-177 standardization of, 184 validity, 185 See also National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference on Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Body Composition Measurement; TBW Biometric Survey of Army Officers, 85 Body composition assessment, 79-114, 124-126, 127-144, 148-150, 151 -163, 166-167, 169-187, 190-192, 193-197 Army body composition standards, 82-87 body fat, 79-80, 85-86, 97-106, 142-143, 152, 154-155, 159-161, 162 bone mineral, 79-80, 152, 154-155 maturational changes in, 85 muscle mass distribution, 97-106 nonbone lean tissue, 79-80, 152, 154-155 organ level, 79 regional body composition, 162 skeletal muscle mass, 128, 129 tissue (soft) composition in bone regions, 159 tissue-system level, 79 tissue thickness, 158-159 See also Anthropometric measurements; Army Body Composition Study; AT; BIA; BMC; BMD; Body fat topography and physiology; CAT; Circumference equations; Durnin and Womersley equations; Dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry; FFM; Hydrodensitometry; Imaging techniques; Infrared interactance; MRI; NIR spectroscopy; Skinfold equations; TBBM; TBW; Ultrasound Body fat topography and physiology, 97-106 female body fat, 97, 99-105 male body fat, 97-100, 102, 104, 105 Body mass index (BMI), 79, 85, 86, 93, 105 body fat, 79, 85-86, 97-106 weight-for-height screen, 85 Body measurements. See Anthropometric measurements Bone mineral content (BMC), 79-80, 90-94, 151, 152, 154-155. See also FFM; TBBM Bone mineral density (BMD), 79-80, 93, 151-154, 155 dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessment of, 152-154, 155 See also Body composition assessment C CAT. See Computerized axial tomography (CAT) CT. See Computerized axial tomography (CAT) Cardiovascular (CV) diseases risk of, 98, 103-104, 105

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability Circumference equations, 96-106, 107 U.S. Army, 96-106 U.S. Marine Corps, 97, 98, 101, 102 U.S. Navy, 97, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104 Computerized axial tomography (CAT), 79, 100, 127-136, 138, 141-144, 162 advantages and disadvantages, 141-142 body component reconstruction, 132-134 cadavers and, 135-136 fat measurement use, 142-143 future applications, 143-144 in vivo, 136 phantoms and, 135-136 physical basis of methods, 130-132 reproducibility, 136 spiral imaging, 143 validation studies, 135-137 See also Imaging techniques D DEXA. See Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DPA. See Dual-photon absorptiometry DXA. See Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry Diseases and disorders. See CV diseases Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, 79-80, 82, 92-95, 99, 100, 102, 107, 109, 110, 111, 113, 151-163 body composition assessment, 154-161 bone mineral density assessment, 151, 152-154, 155 equipment, 152 error sources, 157-159 hydrodensitometry comparisons, 159-161 regional body composition assessment, 162 reliability and precision, 152, 154-155 underlying principles, 156-157 validity, 152-154, 155-161 See also International DXA Standardization Committee Dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), 92, 109, 152 Durnin and Womersley equations, 93, 96 E ECFV. See Extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) Echo Planar Imaging (EPI), 143-144 Electric power. See BIA Ethnicity, 91, 92, 93-94, 96, 100, 104, 181-182 European Fat Distribution Study, 104 Extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), 173-174, 178 F Fat-free mass (FFM), 90-92, 96, 103, 105-113, 174-176, 180, 183, 185, 186 lean mass assessments, 105-106 See also Body composition assessment; BMC; Hydration status Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, 152 G Gender, 79, 83-84, 91, 92-94, 96, 97-106 H Health and nutritional status, 106-113 energy stores, 81

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability exercise habits, 98 muscular strength potential, 81 optimizing strategies, 82 physical fitness, 79, 98 risk of musculoskeletal injury, 81 See also Alcohol use and abuse; CV diseases; Hydration status; Malnutrition; Metabolism; Obesity; Performance, physical; Tobacco and tobacco use Heymsfield four-compartment model, 92-93. See also Underwater weighing Hologic, 152, 154 Hormones, 104-105, 112 androgenicity, 104-105 Hydration status, 80, 81, 90-92, 95, 96, 106-113, 157-158. See also FFM Hydrodensitometry, 79, 92, 156, 159-161 dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry comparisons, 159-161 I Imaging techniques, 95-96, 127-144, 148-150 phantoms, 128 See also CAT; MRI Infrared interactance, 95-97 In vitro assessment, 154, 158 In vivo assessment, 130, 136, 154 International DXA Standardization Committee, 154 K Kenya runners, 112 L Lunar, 152, 154 M Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 79, 127-132, 134-135, 137-144 advantages and disadvantages, 141-142 animals and, 137 body component reconstruction, 132, 134-135 cadavers and, 137 computerized axial tomography comparison, 138 fat measurement use, 142-143 future applications, 143-144 phantoms and, 137 physical basis of methods, 130-131, 132 reliability, 138, 140 validation studies, 135, 137-140 See also Imaging techniques Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. See MRI Malnutrition, 90-91, 110, 113, 186 fasting, 94 food deprivation, 90-91, 113 Maternity. See Pregnancy Metabolism, 82, 113 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 98 Military personnel combat readiness, 82 appearance, 79, 83, 98 recruits, 82, 86 training, 108-109 See also Army Weight Control Program; Military standards; U.S. Army Rangers; U.S. Special Forces; Women in military Military standards body fat equations compared to criterion methods, 87-97 body fat standards, 82-113 selection and fitness standards, 82 See also Military personnel

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability mRNA differential display, 367-368 nutrition effects on, 375-383 trace metals role in, 361, 362, 363-369 See also DNA; Farnesol receptors; Gene transcription; LDL receptor; Molecular approach to nutrition; PCR; PPARs; RNA; Steroid receptors Gene transcription carbohydrate regulation of hepatic gene expression, 380-382 cholesterol regulation of gene expression, 378-380 metabolites as direct effectors of transcription factors, 382-383 metal-responsive gene regulation, 366-367 technologies for studying, 377-378 transcription and its regulation, 376-377 See also Gene expression; MRE Glucosides pyridoxine-5'-ß-D-glucoside, 391-394 riboflavin-5'-a-D-glucoside, 394-398 See also Vitamins Glycolysis hypoxia, upregulation during, 409-410 Glycolytic cells hypoxia, activity during, 409-410 H Health and nutritional status. See Cell function; Cellular approach to nutrition; Cellular dysfunction; Energy expenditure; Metabolism; Military feeding systems and rations; Organ physiology; Physiologic reserve; Physiology Hep-G2 cells, 408, 409. See also Cell function Hypoxia cellular effects of, 404 cellular response, measurement of, 406 glycolytic cells activity during, 409-410 ischemic-hypoxic stress, splanchnic dysfunction during, 407-411 metabolic rate changes during, 409 oxidative cell activity during, 410-411 tissue hypoxia, cell models of, 405-406 See also Stress I Institute of Medicine, 408 In vivo assessment, 366 Iron gene expression role of, 361, 364 See also Trace metals Isolated cells vitamin transport and disposition, study of, 389-398 See also Cellular approach to nutrition L Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 408, 409 Lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor), 378-379 M MRE. See Metal response element (MRE)

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability Metabolism hypoxia, rate changes during, 409 oxidative cells, effects on during hypoxia, 410-411 See also Energy expenditure; Metabolites Metabolites as direct effectors of transcription factors, 382-383 Metal response element (MRE), 366-367, 368. See also Gene transcription Military feeding systems and rations gene regulation by metal dietary supplementation, 368-369 metals supplementation for gene regulation, 368-369 Military personnel. See Military feeding systems and rations Molecular approach to nutrition, 361-362 metabolic regulation of gene expression, 375-383 metals role in gene expression, 363-369 See also Gene expression N Nutrition. See Cellular approach to nutrition; Energy expenditure; Metabolism; Military feeding systems and rations; Molecular approach to nutrition; Vitamins Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments, 404 O Organ physiology, 401-402. See also Physiology Oxidative cells metabolic rate, effects on during hypoxia, 410-411 P PCR. See Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) PLP. See Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), 382-383 Physiologic reserve cell mass function, measure of, 402 deterioration of, 402 Physiology cellular assessment, transition from physiologic, 401-403 cellular dysfunction assessment during physiologic stress, 401-411 See also Organ physiology; Physiologic reserve Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 367. See also Gene expression Proton flux cell energy metabolism changes, measurement of rapid responses, 406-407 Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), 393. See also Vitamins R RNA. See Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Research technologies. See In vivo assessment Riboflavin. See Glucosides Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 376-377 mRNA and iron, 364 mRNA differential display, 367-368 See also Gene expression S Splanchnic dysfunction, 407-411 cell culture lines, variations in, 408-409 glycolytic cells activity during hypoxia, 409-410

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability hypoxia, metabolic rate changes during, 409 oxidative cells activity during hypoxia, 410-411 See also Cellular dysfunction Steroid receptors, 382-383. See also Farnesol receptors; PPARs Stress cellular multiple responses to stress, 403 See also Hypoxia T TCA. See Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) Trace metals gene expression role of, 361, 362, 363-369 gene regulation, metal-responsive, 366-367 gene regulation, metals use in, 368-369 See also Iron; Zinc Tricarboxylic acid (TCA), 406, 407 V Vitamins transport and disposition study, use of isolated-cell techniques, 389-398. See also FAD; FMN; Glucosides; PLP W WIF-B cells, 408, 409. See also Cell function Z Zinc DNA binding and zinc fingers, 365-366 gene expression role of, 361, 363-369 zinc fingers and DNA binding, 365-366 See also Trace metals VII ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE FUNCTION A Antibodies, 433-438, 453-467 passive immunity need for, 481-484 See also CDR; Immune function; PCR; Vaccines and Vaccination Antigens E. coli, 419 endotoxin, 419, 422 immune response to, studies of, 436-438 Athletics runners, research involving, 423-424 C CDR. See Complementarity determining region (CDR) Cell-mediated immune functions CD8 homing and cross-regulation, 461 CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes, functions, 461 CD8 T-cell heterogeneity, 460 compartmentalization of, 459-462 cytokines (circulating) assay, 440-441 evaluation of, 438-444 lymphocyte function in vitro assays, 441-444 lymphocyte populations and subpopulations, 438-440 mucosal T-cells, 460 peripheral T-cells, 460

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability receptors (soluble) assay, 440-441 T-cell phenotypes assessment, 462 See also Compartmentalization of immune function; Cytokines; ELISA; Immune function; Lymphocyte function; Receptors Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR), 476 Compartmentalization of immune function, 453-467 B-cell compartmentalization, conditions influencing, 466-467 cell-mediated immunity, 459-462 humoral immunity, 456 lymphocyte traffic and, 462-464 mucosal immunity and secretory IgA, 458-459 peripheral immunity and IgG, 456-458 T-cell compartmentalization, conditions influencing, 464-466 See also Cell-mediated immune functions; Humoral immune responses; Immune function; Langerhans cells; Lymphocyte function; Mucosal immune function; Peripheral immune function; Peyer's patch; Vaccines and vaccination Complementarity determining region (CDR), 482-484. See also Antibodies Cytokines circulating cytokines assay, 440-441 inflammation and sepsis detection, use of plasma cytokines, 419-420 plasma cytokines measurement factors, 421-423 urinary cytokines field measurement, 423-425 See also Cell-mediated immune functions; Immune function; LEM D Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 441-442, 452, 481-482 E ELISA. See Enzyme-linked immunoabsorption (ELISA) Enterotoxins immunization delivery technologies, 476-480 cholera toxin (CT), 476-480 E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), 478-480 See also Vaccines and vaccination Enzyme-linked immunoabsorption (ELISA), 440, 442. See also Cell-mediated immune functions F FDA. See Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Fish and fish products oil (fish) dietary supplementation effects, 434-435, 438 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 475, 479 Food and food industry. See Fish and fish products

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability G Gene expression. See DNA Germany runners, research involving, 423-424 H Health and nutritional status. See Inflammation; Sepsis; Vaccines and vaccination Humoral immune responses, 433-438 antibody levels measurement, 433-437 compartmentalization of, 456 immunoglobulin (serum) measurement, 433-437 in vitro responses, study of, 438 See also Antibodies; Immune function; Immunoglobulin, serum I Immune function, 415-416, 417-425, 431-445, 451-484 abnormal immune function assessment, 415-416, 417-425, 431-445 humoral immune responses, evaluation, 433-438 monoclonal antibody and flow cytometry technology, 438 mucosal immune function, vaccine development, 415-416, 451-484 passive immunity antibody, 481-484 See also Antibodies; Antigens; Cell-mediated immune functions; Compartmentalization of immune function; Cytokines; Humoral immune responses; Immunoglobulin, serum; Inflammation; LEM; Lymphocyte function; Mucosal immune function; Peripheral immune function; Phagocytic cell assays; Receptors; Sepsis; Vaccines and vaccination Immunization. See Vaccines and vaccination Immunoglobulin, serum, 433-438. See also Humoral immune responses; Immune function Infectious diseases. See Antigens; Enterotoxins; Vaccines and vaccination Inflammation cytokine (plasma and urinary) use to detect presence of, 417-425 See also Immune function; Sepsis; SIRS In vitro assessment humoral immune response study, 438 lymphocyte function assays, 441-444 L Langerhans cells, 472, 473. See also Cell-mediated immune functions; Compartmentalization of immune function Leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), 418. See also Cytokines; Immune function Lymphocyte function compartmentalization of, 462-464 cytokines (circulating) assay, 440-441 functional assays of, 443-444 in vitro assays of, 441-444 mitogenic assays of, 441-443 populations and subpopulations, 438-440 receptors (soluble) assay, 440-441

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability See also Cell-mediated immune functions; Immune function M MAPW. See Multicohort Analysis Project Workshop (MAPW) Meals, Ready-to-Eat (MREs) vaccination (oral) delivery using, 452 Microencapsulation technology adjuvant effects of biodegradable microspheres, 475 immunization delivery technologies, 475-476 vaccines (microencapsulated) and cross-regulation, 476 Military feeding systems and rations. See MREs; Military personnel Military personnel immunization issues, 451-484 Mucosal immune function, 468-474 compartmentalization of, 458-459 cross-regulation vs. tolerance, 470-471 oral tolerance and, 470-474 secretory IgA and, 458-459 suppression vs. tolerance, 471 T-helper subclasses, 471-473 vaccines development for, 451-484 See also Immune function Multicohort Analysis Project Workshop (MAPW), 439 N National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 436 Naval Medical Research Institute, 478 New England Journal of Medicine cytokine research, 419 Nutrition. See Immune function P PCR. See Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) PMN. See Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes Peripheral immune function, 468-474 compartmentalization of, 456-458 IgG and, 456-458 See also Immune function Peyer's patch, 462, 463, 464, 466, 472, 473, 476, 479. See also Cell-mediated immune functions; Compartmentalization of immune function Phagocytic cell assays, 444-445. See also Immune function; PMN leukocytes Plants and vegetation. See Transgenic plants Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 482. See also Antibodies Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, 444-445. See also Phagocytic cell assays R Receptors cytokines (plasma) measurement factors, 421-423 soluble receptors assay, 440-441 See also Cell-mediated immune functions; Immune function Research technologies field measurement of urinary cytokines, 423-425 See also In vitro assessment S SIRS. See Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability Sepsis cytokine (plasma and urinary) use for detection, 419-425 See also Immune function; Inflammation Space flight astronauts weight loss, research involving, 424 Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), 420, 423. See also Inflammation T Toxins. See Enterotoxins Transgenic plants B-cells use for complementarity-determining region isolation and expression in, 482 recombinant human antibodies production in, 483-484 vaccine production use, 480-481 U U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, 470, 477, 482 V Vaccines and vaccination, 436-437, 451-484 compartmentalization of immune responses, 453-467 conventional modes, issues, 468-474 cross-regulation, incompatibility with complete protective immunity , 474 cross-regulation, solutions to, 474-480 enterotoxin-derived carriers, 476-480 microencapsulation of, 452, 475-476 mucosal immune function, vaccine development, 451-484 oral tolerance and mucosal immunity, 470-474 passive immunity antibody, 481-484 T-helper subclasses, 471-474 tolerance v. cross-regulation, 470-471 tolerance v. suppression, 471 transgenic plants, production use, 480-481 See also Antibodies; Enterotoxins; Immune function VIII FUNCTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL MEASURES OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS A AASHTO. See American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) AIDS. See HIV/AIDS Abbott Laboratories Ross Products Division, 507, 511 Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 557, 558, 559 Age muscle function analysis study, age group differences, 512 Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., 537 Ambulatory research techniques, 533-544 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), 557

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability American Psychological Association, 525 Apple®, 524 Arid zones desert environment, field study on military rations, 537-539 Artificial intelligence associates, use for cognitive performance assessment, 524 See also Computers C Center for Computer-Aided Design, 552, 558, 559. See also University of Iowa Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR), 520, 521 Computers artificial intelligence (associates), use for cognitive performance assessment, 524 interface technology, use for cognitive performance assessment, 523-524 miniaturization, use for cognitive performance assessment, 523 muscle function analysis device, description of, 508-509 See also Artificial intelligence; Interface technology; IDS; Miniaturization; Motionlogger Actigraph; Vigilance Monitor; Virtual reality D DIS. See Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Daimler-Benz simulator, 558 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 557, 558, 560 Department of Defense (DoD), 558 Department of Transportation (DoT), 558 Dialysis, renal muscle function analysis study, summary, 513 Diseases and disorders. See Health and nutritional status; HIV/AIDS Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS), 558, 559 E Energy expenditure activity monitoring technology, 537 See also Health and nutritional status F Food and food industry. See Military feeding systems and rations Fort Walton Beach, Florida, 537 G Gender muscle function analysis study, gender differences, 512 Germany Daimler-Benz simulator, 558 H HCSM. See Hierarchical Concurrent State Machine (HCSM) formalism HMMWV. See High-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) Health and nutritional status behavioral measures of, 505-506, 519-525, 533-544 food deprivation effects on cognitive performance, 505, 521 functional measures of, 505-506, 507-514, 551-562 muscle function analysis as indicator of, 507-514

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability underconsumption of rations, effects on cognitive performance, 522 See also Energy expenditure; HIV/AIDS; Motion sickness; Performance, cognitive; Performance, physical; Physical activity Hierarchical Concurrent State Machine (HCSM) formalism, 555. See also IDS High-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV), 557, 558, 559 HIV/AIDS muscle function analysis study, summary, 512-513 I IDS. See Iowa Driving Simulator (IDS) Instruments and measuring devices muscle function analysis device, 508-511 physical activity monitoring devices, 536-540 See also IDS; Motionlogger Actigraph; Vigilance Monitor Interface technology performance (cognitive) assessment technologies, 523-524 See also Computers Iowa Driving Simulator (IDS), 551-562 audio, 554 experimenting using, 556-562 motion feedback, 554 motion sickness and, 560-561 research community and, 560 research issues and limitations, 556 scenario control, 555 tactile and instrument feedback, 554-555 technical overview, 552-556 validation, 561-562 visual feedback, 553 See also HCSM formalism; Virtual reality M MFA. See Muscle function analysis (MFA) MIDI. See Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) Meals, Read-to-Eat (MREs), 536. See also Military feeding systems and rations Microsoft®, 524 Military feeding systems and rations cognitive performance applications of military nutrition research, 519-525 cognitive performance effects of performance-optimizing ration components , 505 cognitive performance effects of underconsumption of rations, 505, 522 food deprivation, cognitive performance effects, 505, 521 nueroscience (nutritional) research, 522 See also MREs; Military personnel; Unified Group Ration Military personnel operational, cognitive performance assessment, 520-525, 533-544 See also Military feeding systems and rations Miniaturization performance (cognitive) assessment technologies, 523

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability See also Computers Motionlogger Actigraph, 505-506, 537. See also Physical activity Motion sickness simulation studies, 560-561 Motor vehicle operation simulation use for human performance measurement, 551-562 See also IDS Muscle function analysis (MFA), 505 clinical trials summary, 511-514 device description, 508-509 dialysis (renal) patients study, 513 HIV/AIDS patients study, 512-513 nutritional status assessment, use for, 507-514 nutritionally compromised patients study, 513-514 test procedure, 510-511 trauma patients study, 513 See also Performance, physical Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI), 558 N Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center, 536 National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), 554, 558, 560 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 558, 560 Nutrition. See Energy expenditure; Health and nutritional status; MFA; Military feeding systems and rations O Office of Technology Assessment, 540 P Performance, cognitive, 505, 506 ambulatory monitoring technology, 536-544 artificial intelligence, 524 assessment technologies for future, 522-525 field research, difficulties associated with, 533-536 food deprivation effects on, 521 interface, 523-524 miniaturization, 523 nutrition (military) research applications of, 519-525 nutritional impacts on field performance, research issues, 533-536 nutritional neuroscience implications for, 522 rations underconsumption effects on, 522 simulation use for human performance measurement, 551-562 vigilance monitoring, field technology, 540-544 See also Health and nutritional status; IDS; Performance, physical; Physical activity; Psychomotor vigilance task; Vigilance Monitor Performance, physical, 505, 506. See also Health and nutritional status; MFA; Performance, cognitive; Physical activity Physical activity monitoring devices for field use, 536-540 See also Health and nutritional status; Motionlogger Actigraph; Performance, cognitive; Performance, physical Precision Control Devices, 537

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Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability Psychomotor vigilance task, 505-506 testing devices, 533-544 See also Motionlogger Actigraph; Performance, cognitive; Vigilance Monitor R Rations. See Military feeding systems and rations Renal dialysis. See Dialysis, renal Research technologies. See Ambulatory research techniques S Simulation. See IDS; Virtual reality U Unified Group Ration, 537-539. See also Military feeding systems and rations University of Iowa, 552, 559. See also Center for Computer-Aided Design; IDS U.S. Army Combat Developments Experimentation Center (USACDEC), 520 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), 520, 533, 536, 537, 540, 541, 542, 543. See also Vigilance Monitor U.S. Marine Corps nutritional manipulation effects on, field study, 537-539 V Vermont performance (cognitive) assessment, military rations field study, 536 Vigilance Monitor, 505-506, 540-544 See also Performance, cognitive; Psychomotor vigilance task Virtual reality human performance assessment using, 551-562 See also Computers; IDS W World Wide Web, 524