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mutual interest and identify areas for cooperation. The report summarizes major uses of modeling and simulation technology in both defense and entertainment applications, outlines research areas in which the entertainment and defense modeling and simulation communities share a common interest, and identifies other issues that must be addressed to facilitate cooperation and ensure the viability of the technology base for modeling and simulation. It does not explicitly consider the degree to which DOD can adopt commercial off-the-shelf technologies for its own purposes; rather, it examines opportunities for conducting research that could benefit both military and entertainment applications.

As the report demonstrates, the potential exists for greater cooperation between the entertainment industry and DOD, but collaboration may not be easy to achieve. The entertainment industry and DOD have vastly different cultures that reflect different business models, capabilities, and objectives. It is unlikely that the cultures will converge, and bridging them may be difficult. Nevertheless, these differences can be a source of strength. DOD's research efforts and those of the entertainment industry are in many ways complementary rather than contradictory. Whereas DOD's research and development efforts are well funded (by industry standards), meticulously planned, and forward looking, the entertainment industry's efforts are diverse, fast paced, and market oriented. If cultural barriers can be overcome, the resulting cooperation could enable the two communities to leverage each other's strengths to develop a stronger technology base that will allow both to more easily achieve their individual objectives for modeling and simulation.

Defense Modeling and Simulation

DOD uses modeling and simulation for a variety of purposes, such as to train individual soldiers, conduct joint training operations, develop doctrine and tactics, formulate operational plans, assess war-fighting situations, evaluate new or upgraded systems, and analyze alternative force structures (see Box 1.1). The technology also supports the requirements of other critical defense needs such as command, control, and communications; computing and software; electronics; manpower, personnel, and training; and manufacturing technology. As a result of this breadth, defense models and simulations range in size and scope from components of large weapons systems through system-level and engagement-level simulations, to simulations of missions and battles, and theater-level campaigns. DOD's Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) coordinates military modeling and simulation programs on an interservice level and has played a key role in developing a standard architecture for military simulations. Each of the military services also has a designated

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