also squeezing the suppliers—the managerial practice of pushing more and more responsibility for areas such as technology and quality on to the suppliers.

Dr. Keller remarked that the issue of international cooperation and interoperability has been a problem for a long time and that past attempts to address the issue, such as the Nunn Amendment programs, have not seemed to progress very far. He asked if there Was a new strategy to really get technology cooperation, especially from the Europeans.

Mr. Hoeper responded that a number of the Nunn programs—NATO cooperative R&D programs—were working rather well, with a four-to-one leverage. As far as new strategies, he gave the example in the communications area of a successful five-nation partnership, in part due to the fact that the teaming was done early.



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