Aerospace Corporation has made significant progress from 0.01 percent women in their technical workforce in 1962 to 12.5 percent women in 1993. Its recruitment of women is aided by the involvement of many women who act as mentors, by policies and practices that are attractive to women, and by many dedicated people who are working toward creating a positive climate that contributes to the successful recruitment of women.
Women's committees or networks within a company can be vitally important influences on the recruitment and retention of women, and the Women's Committee at Aerospace has been not only a leader for change, but also a strong support system that has helped women gain confidence. Issues addressed include the following:
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APPENDIX D EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL DIVERSITY INITIATIVES IN OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AEROSPACE CORPORATION Aerospace Corporation has made significant progress from 0.01 percent women in their technical workforce in 1962 to 12.5 percent women in 1993. Its recruitment of women is aided by the involvement of many women who act as mentors, by policies and practices that are attractive to women, and by many dedicated people who are working toward creating a positive climate that contributes to the successful recruitment of women. Women's committees or networks within a company can be vitally important influences on the recruitment and retention of women, and the Women's Committee at Aerospace has been not only a leader for change, but also a strong support system that has helped women gain confidence. Issues addressed include the following: Developing a maternity leave policy Equalizing employee benefits for secretarial and technical staff Establishing awards for women Researching and making recommendations to the president and executive staff on female candidates for the board of directors
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ALCOA ALCOA Technical Center, the research facility of the Aluminum Company of America, is a leader in the industry in developing programs for attracting and retaining talented women. Effective policies and programs have been developed to help employees balance work and family responsibilities. To establish recruitment programs and to develop university relations, ALCOA representatives were sent directly to select colleges and universities with large numbers of women and minority graduates in the sciences and engineering. The Pilot School Program is the result of such efforts, and it serves to establish meaningful technology linkages between the ALCOA coordinator and university faculty and students. Through its Minority Fellowship Program, ALCOA develops relationships with high potential female and minority candidates APPLE A Systemic Approach to Diversity Programs Include those who will be involved or interested in the outcome of the program or intervention in developing programs and interventions that support diversity in all phases of the employment cycle—sourcing, recruiting, interviewing, orientation acculturation, coaching, and development/ promotion. Following is a list of what Apple is doing or is considering doing in each of these areas. Sourcing. Establish ongoing relationships with professional associations and universities. For example, Apple engineers act as ''professor for a day'' and/or set up and support computer labs on campus, or they might host product demonstration booths at professional conferences and meetings and arrange for senior scientists and managers to keynote functions. Recruiting. Campus recruiting, professional networking, and word-of-mouth. Provide bonuses to individuals who recommend new hires for hard-to-fill positions and offer internships. Interviewing. Provide training to support cultural diversity in the process (e.g., how to accurately assess a candidate's qualifications across cultures, and how to appropriately and comfortably communicate one's qualifications). Inform candidates about what to expect during the interview process and monitor the interview and selection processes. Orientation/Acculturation. Start up a buddy program and an employee association Coaching. Mentoring. Development/Promotion. Rotate assignments; Leadership in Action, a junior/senior partnership program; "Bridges—Managing a Diverse Workforce" training program; and roundtable discussions about current business and career issues featuring company leaders. Climate. Cultural celebrations and diversity awareness training ("A Winning Balance").
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AT&T AT&T Bell Laboratories "value both women and men employees who are well grounded in their technical expertise and who have an understanding of the business world." AT&T is committed to encouraging this broader base of knowledge and to improving the working climate for its female employees. AT&T has developed, collaboratively with human resources and technical staff, a University Relations Summer Program and offers scholarships and fellowships such as the Engineering Scholarship Program, the Cooperative Research Fellowship Program, and the Graduate Research Program for Women. Another effort at AT&T is sponsorship (with the National Science Foundation and other U.S. companies) of the Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network (WEPAN). WEPAN includes efforts to increase the numbers of women studying engineering, to establish mentoring and summer internships involving the private sector, and to find positions for women engineering graduates. WEPAN also works with women in professional positions. The Employee Counseling Service is a highly effective program that provides private and confidential one-on-one counseling sessions, consults with management about special organizational and individual issues, and presents special seminars and workshops on subjects such as balancing work and family, single working parents, and dual-career couples. CORNING, INC. The Corning Professional Women's Forum: Networking—A Guide for Getting Started A voluntary network was created to foster professional growth for women employees of Corning. Five basic kinds of networks were identified: Professional/trade group Mixed industrial women's business network Mixed network of men and women Volunteer network Strong network of family and friends A three-fold approach was recommended to structuring the network: Buddy system. Know someone who has your best interests at heart. Board of Advisors. Know a group of people who can provide advice. Resource Network. Work to expand the network to include a variety of people and levels.
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY The United States Department of Energy (DOE) views people as its most important resource and values the needs of individuals. It is committed to attracting and accommodating women as part of the diverse work force and places the safety, health, and well-being of the work force as the highest priority. DOE is helping women achieve their professional goals through targeted recruitment and employment programs. Upward Mobility (a government-wide program) is a competitive recruitment option enabling DOE management to select highly qualified, lower-level employees for trainee positions. Management Intern Development Program and Career Entry and Development Program offer recruitment opportunities to entry-level professionals for technical, administrative, and managerial jobs. Presidential Management Intern Program matches the interest of outstanding graduates desiring public service careers in policy analysis and program management with the needs of federal departments and agencies. Technical Leadership Development Program (within the Office of Defense) and Technical Manager Development Program (within the Office of Environmental Management) are designed to select qualified graduates and to develop their technical management skills. Many issues fundamental to the advancement of women in the work place revolve around the role of women as caregivers for children and elders and as providers of family economic stability. The Eldercare Program offers assistance and resources to employees taking care of older relatives. The government-wide Federal Women's Program was initiated 1980. The program at headquarters has included educational programs, reports, outreach, and activities exhibits at professional meetings. It also offers the opportunity for participation in the Federal Women's Program Advisory Council. In addition, each DOE field organization has a Federal Women's Program Coordinator and conducts numerous activities which include various role model/mentoring programs. Education and training programs offered by DOE include federal and laboratory initiatives that advance the status of women by offering them opportunities to enhance leadership skills and to gain exposure to science and mathematics-based professions. Federal programs provide management training and greater access to management positions and include the Professional Skills Training Program, the Women's Executive Leadership Program, the Leadership Enhancement Program, and the Senior Executive Service Candidate Development Program. Laboratory initiatives are designed to stimulate interest in science careers through hands-on experience and include the Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program, the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering, and the Summer Student Training Program.
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XEROX Xerox Corporate Research and Technology (CRT) is working towards making Xerox Corp "the employer of choice for women in minorities by the year 2000." To meet its goal, a "Women's Council" was formed in 1991 to provide advice to senior management on issues related to recruiting and retaining women. Council members identified five problem areas: the number of women in corporate research career development salary equity working environment benefits As a result, the following recommendations have been made: Improve hiring and promotions Establish linkages with universities Create lateral hiring opportunities into other units of Xerox Allow cross-laboratory promotions Through the formation of the "Women Managers Roundtable," the company is introducing a change in culture from the top.
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