2
Profiles of the Science and Engineering Work Force

The National Pool of Scientists and Engineers

Before addressing the diversity of the ONR work force, it is important to understand the characteristics of the overall national pool of scientists and engineers from which those individuals are drawn. Based on data on current ONR employees and ONR's description of its expectations for hires, the committee identified a pool of U.S. scientists and engineers which it believes contains those individuals most likely to be eligible for ONR positions at the level of program officer or higher. This pool is limited to individuals with either a doctoral degree in a relevant science or engineering field or a master's degree in engineering. It is further limited to those with U.S. citizenship, a requirement of employment at ONR. The committee examined the characteristics of the overall pool and, to the extent possible, the corresponding characteristics of the members of underrepresented groups. None of these characteristics indicate an eligibility for or interest in work at ONR per se, but they do point to the types of individuals who have the potential for a good match. With the exception of the data on recent Ph.D.s, these numbers are estimates based on surveys of a representative sample of Ph.D.s and master's recipients currently working in the U.S.

Because most scientists and engineers have several years of professional experience before joining ONR, the committee focused its attention on the pool of individuals who received their degrees between 1960 and 1989. Deemed to be of an experience level comparable to those currently at ONR, this group is described in the section below entitled ''Experienced Doctorate and Master's Recipients." However, more recent degree recipients are by now or soon will be of an experience level to make them eligible for ONR positions as well. The characteristics of this pool are described in the section entitled "Recent Doctorate and Master's Recipients."

The pools of scientists and engineers described here cover all sectors of employment, including academia, industry, and government, and all geographic regions of the U.S. This is the case even though, as the report discusses later, some ONR recruitment efforts are restricted to the



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2 Profiles of the Science and Engineering Work Force The National Pool of Scientists and Engineers Before addressing the diversity of the ONR work force, it is important to understand the characteristics of the overall national pool of scientists and engineers from which those individuals are drawn. Based on data on current ONR employees and ONR's description of its expectations for hires, the committee identified a pool of U.S. scientists and engineers which it believes contains those individuals most likely to be eligible for ONR positions at the level of program officer or higher. This pool is limited to individuals with either a doctoral degree in a relevant science or engineering field or a master's degree in engineering. It is further limited to those with U.S. citizenship, a requirement of employment at ONR. The committee examined the characteristics of the overall pool and, to the extent possible, the corresponding characteristics of the members of underrepresented groups. None of these characteristics indicate an eligibility for or interest in work at ONR per se, but they do point to the types of individuals who have the potential for a good match. With the exception of the data on recent Ph.D.s, these numbers are estimates based on surveys of a representative sample of Ph.D.s and master's recipients currently working in the U.S. Because most scientists and engineers have several years of professional experience before joining ONR, the committee focused its attention on the pool of individuals who received their degrees between 1960 and 1989. Deemed to be of an experience level comparable to those currently at ONR, this group is described in the section below entitled ''Experienced Doctorate and Master's Recipients." However, more recent degree recipients are by now or soon will be of an experience level to make them eligible for ONR positions as well. The characteristics of this pool are described in the section entitled "Recent Doctorate and Master's Recipients." The pools of scientists and engineers described here cover all sectors of employment, including academia, industry, and government, and all geographic regions of the U.S. This is the case even though, as the report discusses later, some ONR recruitment efforts are restricted to the

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Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and many ONR employees are hired from elsewhere in the Navy. In addition, the committee recognizes that job mobility across geographic regions or across sectors of employment may be limited for many scientists and engineers. At the same time, though, the data do not permit identifying a pool of potential employees by field for a specific geographic region or just for the Navy. Also, it is impossible to tell which individuals from other sectors of employment should be excluded because they are not truly mobile. Finally, while acknowledging ONR's unique job requirements, the committee believes that drawing from a broad national pool whenever possible can only enhance the quality and diversity of potential job candidates. Experienced Doctorate and Master's Recipients Ph.D.S in Science and Engineering Fields In order to identify the pool of underrepresented minorities, women, and persons with disabilities possibly eligible to assume current management positions at ONR, the committee examined data from the 1993 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (the most recent data were not available at the time of committee deliberations). In order to match the pool to ONR's needs, only individuals with Ph.D.s in the following fields were included: biological sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer science, physical sciences, and relevant fields within psychology. Only U.S. citizens were included, and only those who indicated that they were currently working in a field "somewhat related" or "closely related" to their Ph.D. field (91 percent of the total). In addition, only individuals who received their doctorates between 1960 and 1989 were included. Data on this pool are presented in Table Series A-1. The overall pool of experienced Ph.D.s who meet the above criteria includes 228,400 individuals. Women represent almost 15 percent (33,600) of the total pool of experienced Ph.D.s, ranging from 24 percent (16,200) in the biological sciences, to 9 percent (5,900) in the physical sciences, to 3 percent (1,700) in engineering (see Figure 2-1). The percentage of women is highest in psychology (34 percent or 7,600), but this field represents only 4 percent of the expertise of ONR's current work force. There are 7,300 African Americans, American Indians, and Hispanics in this pool, comprising about 3 percent of the total. Like women, underrepresented minorities are represented in somewhat higher proportions in psychology. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders comprise 9 percent (21,000) of the overall pool, with the highest concentration in engineering. Disabled persons represent less than 1 percent (1,500). Within the physical sciences, the greatest number of women are in chemistry (11 percent or 4,000) and the lowest number in atmospheric sciences (2 percent or 30) and physics (4 percent or 800), as depicted in Figure 2-2. Although the numbers of underrepresented minorities in some of these fields are extremely small, they are somewhat higher in chemistry (3 percent or 1,200) and physics (2 percent or 500). There has been substantial growth in the number of female Ph.D.s over the past few decades. Among graduates who received their degrees in 1960-64, women

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Figure 2-1 Experienced S&E doctorates by field, gender, race, and disability status. Source: Table A-1.1 Figure 2-2 Physical science doctorates by field, gender, race, and disability status. Source: Table A-1.2

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represented less than 5 percent (600), but they accounted for 25 percent (11,000) of 1985-89 graduates (see Figure 2-3). Except for Hispanics, Ph.D. degrees awarded to underrepresented minorities have increased only modestly over this same time period. Degrees to African Americans, American Indians, and Hispanics together increased from about 120 in 1960-64 to 1,700 in 1985-89, an increase from 1 to nearly 4 percent of the total. Since the late 1970s, there has been virtually no increase in the number of underrepresented minorities receiving Ph.D.s in these fields. The percentage of Ph.D.s in science and engineering who are disabled remained fairly constant at less than 1 percent between 1960 and 1989. Within that population, the numbers of individuals reporting disabilities were higher in the earlier cohorts and lower in the most recent group. When asked on the 1993 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 340 of the 1965-69 graduates reported having a disability, compared to 170 of the 1985-89 graduates. This is not surprising, given the fact that disability increases with age, and the former group is approximately 20 years older than the latter. Some additional information is known about the characteristics of the target population through the 1993 Survey of Doctorate Recipients. There are about 40,400 individuals from the national pool of experienced Ph.D. scientists and engineers who are underrepresented minorities, women, or disabled persons (see Table A-1.5). Figure 2-3 Percent female, underrepresented minorities, and disabled S&E doctorates: 1960-89. Source: Table A-1.3

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Half of this population (20,300) are employed in universities and four-year colleges, with another one-quarter (10,000) employed in private-for-profit companies (see Figure 2-4). Only 3,000 (or 8 percent) are employed in the federal government. Of the 50 percent of the above target group employed in universities and four-year colleges, nearly half (9,400) of those are in research universities. They are divided fairly evenly across academic ranks, with about 25 percent each among full professor, associate professor, and assistant professor. The remaining 25 percent are instructors or adjunct faculty or hold non-faculty positions. Attempting to understand what kind of work these individuals do is, of course, more difficult. However, 63 percent (25,300) of them report that they supervise others, and 79 percent (32,000) are involved in conducting research or development. Master's in Engineering Information on the characteristics of experienced individuals with master's degrees in engineering was drawn from the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates. As with the Ph.D.s, the pool contains only U.S. citizens working in a field "somewhat related" or "closely related" to their field of Figure 2-4 Underrepresented S&E doctorates by sector of employment. Source: Table A-1.5

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study (72 percent of the total) who received their master's degrees between 1960 and 1989. Data are provided for engineering as a whole and for the following five areas: electrical and computer science, mechanical and industrial, civil and architectural, chemical, and other engineering fields (see Table Series A-2). Women represent 6 percent (17,900) of this pool, with the highest percentage of women being in chemical engineering (11 percent or 2,700) and the lowest in electrical engineering and computer science (4 percent or 3,900) (see Figure 2-5). Underrepresented minorities are 2 percent of the population, or about 5,700 individuals. Persons with disabilities constitute less than 1 percent, or about 1,300 individuals. Since the early 1960s, women have increased their representation in engineering from 2 percent (400) of the master's degree recipients in 1960-64 to almost 13 percent (8,700) in 1985-89 (see Figure 2-6). Minorities (excluding Asian Americans) have increased from 200 to 2,000, to about 3 percent of the population. Experienced master's degree engineers who reported having a disability in 1993 average 0.5 percent or less of the pool regardless of when they received their master's degree, with the one exception of the earliest cohort of 1960-64 graduates (1.4 percent). This population of engineers includes a pool of 23,800 experienced master' s-degree holders who are members of the target groups (see Table A-2.3). Figure 2-5 Experienced master's in engineering by field, gender, race, and disability status. Source: Table A-2.1

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Figure 2-6 Percent female, underrepresented minorities, and disabled persons with master's in engineering: 1960-89. Source: Table A-2.2 Seventy-two percent (17,100) of these engineers work for private-for-profit companies; 12 percent (3,000) work for the federal government; and only 4 percent (1,000) work for universities and four-year colleges (see Figure 2-7). As would be expected, almost two-thirds of them have over 10 years of professional experience, while the other one-third have 5 to 10 years of experience. Eleven percent (2,700) of them indicate that they are top or mid-level managers, executives, or those who manage other managers. Nearly 60 percent (14,000) of this target population are engaged in conducting research or development. Findings and Conclusions Based on these data, the committee finds that, even though the percentages are low, there are a substantial number of women, minorities, and disabled persons who are experienced scientists and engineers potentially eligible for employment at ONR. At the Ph.D. level, the numbers of women are higher in the biological sciences (24 percent) and lower in the physical sciences (9 percent) and engineering (3 percent). Even in physics, however, the committee estimates that there are 800 Ph.D. women with the appropriate background for possible ONR employment, and 1,600 female Ph.D.s in engineering. Among master's educated engineers, women are still a small percent (6

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Figure 2-7 Underrepresented master's in engineering by sector of employment. Source: Table A-2.3 percent), but that proportion doubles among those educated in the late 1980s. In general, the numbers of eligible women increase significantly among scientists and engineers who have completed their degrees in the past 10-15 years, providing many more potential candidates for ONR positions. The picture for minorities is less positive; they remain at about 3 percent (7,300) of the Ph.D.s and 2 percent (5,700) of the master's engineers. Even among more recent cohorts (1985-89 graduates) they represent less than 4 percent (1,700) of the Ph.D.s and 3 percent (2,000) of the master's in engineering. Overall, there are 40,400 Ph.D.s and 23,800 master's recipients who are women, underrepresented minorities, or disabled persons in these national pools of experienced scientists and engineers. Three-quarters of them work in academia or industry. Only 8 percent (3,000) of the Ph.D.s across all fields work for the federal government, with the highest concentration (10 percent) in engineering. Among master's recipients in engineering, only 12 percent (3,000) overall work for the federal government, with the highest concentration in civil and architectural engineering (20 percent or 1,100). If ONR is to identify and attract candidates from the national pool of experienced personnel, it will have to recruit more vigorously where most of those individuals are—in academia and industry.

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Recent Doctorate and Master's Recipients As mentioned above, ONR indicated to the committee that it did not hire new or very recent graduates for its program officer or senior executive positions. However, the pool of recent degree recipients will soon become eligible for ONR positions, and it is useful in planning a long-term strategy for increasing diversity to examine some of the characteristics of this pool of potential ONR employees. Ph.D.S in Science and Engineering Fields For purposes of this study, recent Ph.D.s were defined as those receiving their degrees between 1990 and 1995, using data from the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates. As above, only U.S. citizens are included. Data tables are available in Table Series A-3. In contrast to the earlier cohorts, Ph.D. recipients in the early 1990s are more diverse (see Figure 2-8). Of this population, 30 percent (16,700) are female, ranging from 15 percent (1,600) in engineering, 22 percent each in the physical sciences (3,200) and math and computer science (1,100), to 41 percent (7,800) in the biological sciences. Over half (3,000) of the new Ph.D.s in psychology are women. Underrepresented minorities represent about 4.5 percent (2,400) of the new Ph.D.s, spread fairly evenly across fields except for mathematics and computer science, which have 2.9 percent (135). Disabled persons represent 1.2 percent (670) of the population. This percentage cannot be compared with the percentage of disabled persons in the more experienced pool because the question is asked differently on the two surveys from which these data are drawn (see the notes to Tables A-1.1 and A-3.1). In any case, the numbers in both pools are extremely small. Within the physical sciences, women represent 27 percent (2,000) of the chemists and 24 percent (500) of the geologists, but still only 10 percent (400) of the physicists (see Figure 2-9). Non-Asian minorities (4 percent or 600) are represented in somewhat higher numbers in chemistry (5 percent or 300), as before, and less in physics (3 percent or 100). These data revealed about the same percent (1 percent) of disabled persons in the physical sciences as in the five broad fields overall. Nearly 18,600 Ph.D.s have been awarded in the past six years to underrepresented scientists and engineers (see Table A-3.3). As is the case with all recent Ph.D.s, two-thirds of the degrees to members of underrepresented groups came from institutions in four regions of the country: South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic, eastern North Central, and Pacific. Research universities awarded 84 percent of the Ph.D.s to underrepresented scientists and engineers, only slightly less than the 87 percent awarded to all Ph.D.s. Master's in Engineering Data on recent master's recipients in engineering are available from the National Survey of College Graduates for 1990-93 only; 1994 and 1995 graduates are not included. AS with the Ph.D.s, U.S. citizens working in a field ''somewhat related" or "closely related" to their degree were included (see Table Series A-4).

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Figure 2-8 Recent doctorates by field, gender, race, and disability status. Source: Table A-3.1 Figure 2-9 Recent doctorates in physical sciences by field, gender, race, and disability status. Source: Table A-3.2

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The number of women receiving master's degrees in engineering in recent years has indeed increased; women represent 13 percent (7,400) of the population in this newer cohort, while they were only 6 percent (17,900) of the more experienced group (see Figure 2-10). Underrepresented minorities overall account for 4 percent (2,400). African Americans represent 3.7 percent (2,100) of this population, compared to 1.4 percent (4,100) of the more experienced group. American Indians and Hispanics, however, appear unchanged at less than 1 percent each. The number of disabled persons in the survey sample for this population was too small to permit an estimate. There are approximately 9,300 engineers who are in the targeted population (see Table A-4.2), educated predominantly in electrical engineering and computer science or in mechanical and industrial engineering. As with Ph.D. recipients, they received their degrees primarily from schools in the South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic, eastern North Central, and Pacific regions of the U.S. Findings and Conclusions The data on degree recipients since 1990 show a much more diverse population. Women now receive 30 percent of the Figure 2-10 Recent master's in engineering by field, gender, and race. Source: Table A-4.1

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Other Pools Naval Research Laboratory Personnel Because so many ONR employees come from the Navy, the committee believes that a potential pool of experienced scientists and engineers who also have Navy experience exists in the Navy laboratories, and especially at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Time did not permit an extensive investigation into the various Navy research facilities, but the committee did review some basic demographic and employment data on women and minorities at NRL. Individuals at the GS 12 level were included in this analysis since they could potentially be eligible for positions at ONR as program officers. Out of 1,677 scientists and engineers at the GS 12 through senior executive levels, 170 or 10 percent are women (see Figure 2-19). The physical sciences and engineering clearly dominate NRL's activities with 90 percent of the S&E work force. Three-quarters of the female scientists and engineers work in the physical sciences or engineering. There are 44 individuals (less than 3 percent of the total) who are members of underrepresented racial or ethnic groups: 22 African Americans, 16 Hispanics, and 6 American Indians. Thirty-eight (or 86 percent) of these scientists and engineers work in the physical sciences and engineering, with the remaining 6 in mathematics and computer science. NRL appears to have a relatively large population of disabled scientists and engineers (nearly 8 percent or 130). However, this includes everyone who reports a disability, which is a more inclusive definition than that used in the national surveys of doctoral and master's recipients.* Without further investigation, it is difficult to compare these data on disabled persons with those from other sources. In terms of grade level, female scientists and engineers are generally represented in fewer numbers as their grades increase, ranging from 17 percent (80) of the GS 12s to 2 percent of the GS 15s (6) (see Figure 2-20). The senior executive ranks, however, are an important exception to this pattern; there are 4 women at this level, all in the physical sciences. These senior women, combined with their 6 female colleagues at the GS 15 level, would appear to be a potential source of recruitment for ONR senior executive positions. Underrepresented minorities also populate the lower grades in greater numbers, with 31 (or 70 percent) of them in GS 12 or GS 13 levels. There are, however, 5 individuals at the GS 15 or senior executive level who might be eligible for senior positions at ONR. *   Both the Survey of Doctorate Recipients and the National Survey of College Graduates define disabled persons as "individuals who have severe difficulty seeing, hearing, walking, and/or lilting or are unable to perform these tasks." The Survey of Earned Doctorates defines disabled persons as "those individuals who indicated that they had a disability."

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Figure 2-19 NRL S&E employees by field, gender, race, and disability status. Source: Table A-6.1 Figure 2-20 NRL S&E employees by field, gender, race, and disability status. Source: Table A-6.2

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ONR Principal Investigators There are approximately 5,400 principal investigators (PIs) with contracts or grants funded by ONR. These individuals have an ongoing, working relationship with ONR program officers and, by definition, are engaged in work of interest to the Navy. They constitute, in the committee's opinion, a potential source of employees for ONR that does not appear to have been tapped. They might come to ONR as permanent employees or through the Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA), by which employees of organizations outside the federal government undertake short-term assignments in federal agencies. Unfortunately, the data on principal investigators do not contain information on their gender, race/ethnicity, or disability status. A simple review of the names of the PIs, however, yielded a rough estimate that approximately 525 (or 10 percent) of them are women. Over half of these women were located in academia, with at least another third in government (see Figure 2-21). Findings and Conclusions Both NRL employees and ONR principal investigators can serve as potential pools for the recruitment of more women and minorities into ONR program officer Figure 2-21 Female principal investigators by sector of employment. Source: Human Resources Office, Office of Naval Research, 1996

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and management positions. Most have the necessary technical background, as well as desirable experience in or with the Navy. Many may not be interested in giving up their research careers, of course, but no doubt some would be. The population at NRL seems particularly promising, especially if recruitment efforts are focused on those women, minorities, and disabled persons with doctoral degrees. Comparison of ONR Employees With the National Pools There are a significant number of women and minorities, and a growing number of persons with disabilities, among scientists and engineers who are or soon will be eligible for positions at ONR. Given the age, fields, and background of the majority of ONR employees, however, it is not surprising that few of them are members of these underrepresented groups. First, the percentage of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in the age cohort of most ONR employees is small. Figure 2-22 compares the year of college entrance of ONR employees with doctoral degrees to that of the national pool of experienced Ph.D.s (comparable data were not available for master's recipients). Among Ph.D. scientists and engineers who entered college before 1970, the proportion of women in the national pool does not exceed 15 percent. For each age cohort, the proportion of women in the ONR work force is still less than that in the national pool, but the ONR percentages are comparable to those in the national pool for 1960-69 and 1970-79. Second, proportional representation by these groups has historically been small in the fields of greatest interest to ONR, namely the physical sciences and engineering. Among experienced Ph.D.s, the broad fields with the lowest percentages of women are the physical sciences (9 percent) and engineering (3 percent). Among experienced master's in engineering, women account for 6 percent. Third, many ONR employees come from within the Navy or elsewhere in the federal government, which is true for only a small percentage of the target group. As the data on the available pools indicate, three` quarters of the underrepresented Ph.D.s who are likely to be eligible for ONR positions currently work in academia or industry, as do about 76 percent of the master's-educated engineers. Less than 8 percent of these Ph.D.s, and 12 percent of the master's in engineering, work in the federal government. Given these limitations, the committee concludes that ONR has done a reasonable job of hiring women into its science and engineering work force. It has been less successful in hiring minorities, but its number of persons with disabilities exceeds the percentage in the overall pools. Each of these groups will be examined in turn. Representation of Women Table 2-3 compares the number and percent of women currently in the ONR S&E work force with the number and percent in the various national pools by field. In examining these data, it is important to remember that, given the small numbers involved, percentages (especially in the ONR work force of 150 people) must be used with caution. It would be unreasonable to expect ONR to attempt to match the percentage of women (or minorities) in each

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Figure 2-22 National pool of experienced S&E and ON-R doctorate work force by year of college entrance and gender. Source: Table A-1.4 and National Research Council, Special Tabulations, 1996.

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TABLE 2-3 Percent of Women in the ONR Work Force and National Pools by Broad Fields   Total Biological Sciences Engineering Mathematics & Computer Sciences Physical Sciences Cognitive Sci.* & Psychology Group # % # % # % # % # % # % ONR 16 10.7 3 3 30.0 5 10.0 5 33.3 2 3.0 1 12.5 Experienced Doctorate 33,553 14.7 16,246 23.7 1,653 3.3 2,159 11.2 5,925 8.6 7,570 34.0 Master's 17,865 6.2 -- -- 17,865 6.2 -- -- -- -- -- -- Recent Doctorate 16,660 30.2 7,759 41.1 1,618 14.6 1,063 22.2 3,216 21.7 3,004 55.2 Master's 7,370 13.2 -- -- 7,370 13.2 -- -- -- -- -- -- NOTE: The national pool for cognitive sciences includes Ph.D.s in the following fields of psychology: cognitive and psycholinguistics, comparative, experimental, industrial and organizational, personality, physiological, psychometrics, quantitative, social, and general. SOURCE: Tables A-1.1, A-2.1, A-3.1, A-4.1, A-5.1

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of its fields to the percentage in the national pool. In addition, a suitable applicant for employment at ONR in a particular group of fields (e.g., the physical sciences) will not necessarily have a degree in one of those fields. Scientists in many areas, and engineers especially, tend to work in fields different from that of their graduate education. With these caveats, the committee believes that Tables 2-3, 2-4, and 2-5 can help identify potential areas of underutilization. How well is ONR doing at achieving representation of women, by field, compared with national pools? The box below summarizes the committee's findings. The agency-wide representation of female scientists and engineers at ONR is good considering the age and experience of the current work force. ONR has clearly made efforts in the past few years to recruit women, and the ONR work force is now nearly 11 percent female, comparable to the percent of women in the national pools of experienced scientists and engineers (6-15 percent). However, more effort is needed to recruit or promote women into the higher management levels. Also, effort should be focused on the physical sciences where the representation of women at ONR still lags behind the pool of experienced female Ph.D.s. The gap appears to be easier to close in the cognitive sciences, given the larger representation of women in that pool. Additional effort in the physical sciences and the cognitive sciences should pay off in the next five years, especially with the percentage of women among recent FIELD FINDING RATIONALE BEHIND FINDING Biological Sciences meets a reasonable goal Thirty percent of ONR biologists are women. This is better than the national pool of experienced Ph.D. biologists (24 percent), though below the more recent supply (41 percent). Engineering meets a reasonable goal Ten percent of ONR engineers are women, far better than the 3-6 percent in the experienced pools of Ph.D.s and master's recipients and almost at the 13-15 percent level of the recent graduates. Math and Computer Science exceeds a reasonable goal Thirty-three percent of ONR mathematicians and computer scientists are women. This far exceeds the 11 percent of women in the experienced Ph.D. pool and even the 22 percent in the recent graduate pool. Physical Sciences needs improvement Three percent of ONR physical scientists are women, while women constitute 9 percent of the experienced Ph.D. pool and 22 percent of the recent graduates. Cognitive Sciences needs improvement Twelve percent of ONR cognitive scientists are women, compared to 34 percent in the experienced pool and 55 percent of recent graduates.

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graduates nationally ranging from 13 to 30 percent. For example, assuming ONR maintains its current size, the hiring of an additional 10 women would bring its overall percentage of female scientists and engineers to 17 percent, comparable to the 15 percent in the pool of experienced Ph.D.s and the 30 percent of recent doctorates. Separate efforts will need to be made to recruit or promote at least two or three women (9-13 percent) into the senior executive ranks, regardless of field, and to help ensure that women employees in all fields have opportunities for promotion comparable to those of their male colleagues. Representation of Minorities Because of the presence of only one underrepresented minority at ONR little can be said about the comparison of the ONR work force with the national pools. Table 2-4 does provide the percent of underrepresented minorities in each of the national pools by field, which can be used as a guide to future recruitment. Across all fields, a minority population at ONR of 5 to 6 scientists and engineers out of 150 would approach the 3-4 percent in the overall pools. Representation of Persons with Disabilities Table 2-5 describes the number and percent of persons with disabilities in each of the national pools. As with minorities, the number of persons with disabilities at ONR (three) is too small to permit comparisons by field. The overall percentage of persons with disabilities in the ONR work force is 2 percent, which is higher than the 0.5 percent in the pool of experienced doctorates and the 1.2 percent among recent doctorates. Summary The human resource pool from which ONR can draw is larger and more diverse than in the past. There are today a significant number of women and minorities who are experienced scientists and engineers. Also, their representation in the cohort of recent doctoral and master's recipients is growing. There are women and minorities at NRL who would be eligible for positions at ONR and who have the advantage of Navy experience, as well as female researchers who are already ONR principal investigators. These pools are rich resources from which to draw as ONR continues to increase its diversity.

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TABLE 2-4 Percent of Women in the ONR Work Force and National Pools by Broad Fields   Total Biological Sciences Engineering Mathematics & Computer Sciences Physical Sciences Cognitive Sci.* & Psychology Group # % # % # % # % # % # % ONR 1 0.7 0 0.0 1 2.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Experienced Doctorate 7,343 3.2 2,248 3.3 1,403 2.9 661 3.4 1,857 2.6 1,173 5.3 Master's 5,666 2.0 -- -- 5,666 2.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- Recent Doctorate 2,416 4.5 834 4.4 459 4.1 135 2.9 555 3.8 433 7.9 Master's 2,386 4.3 -- -- 2,386 4.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- NOTE: The national pool for cognitive sciences includes Ph.D.s in the following fields of psychology: cognitive and psycholinguistics, comparative, experimental, industrial and organizational, personality, physiological, psychometrics, quantitative, social, and general. SOURCE: Tables A-1.1, A-2.1, A-3.1, A-4.1, A-5.1

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TABLE 2-5 Percent of Women in the ONR Work Force and National Pools by Broad Fields   Total Biological Sciences Engineering Mathematics & Computer Sciences Physical Sciences Cognitive Sci.* & Psychology Group # % # % # % # % # % # % ONR 3 2.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Experienced Doctorate 1,484 0.6 289 0..4 264 0.5 199 1.0 517 0.8 216 1.0 Master' s 1,292 0.4 -- -- 1,292 0.4 -- -- -- -- -- -- Recent Doctorate 664 1.2 218 1.2 119 1.1 64 1.3 186 1.3 77 1.4 Master's 0 0.0 -- -- 0 0.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- NOTE: The national pool for cognitive sciences includes Ph.D.s in the following fields of psychology: cognitive and psycholinguistics, comparative, experimental, industrial and organizational, personality, physiological, psychometrics, quantitative, social, and general. SOURCE: Tables A-1.1, A-2.1, A-3.1, A-4.1, A-5.1

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