Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and many ONR employees are hired from elsewhere in the Navy. In addition, the committee recognizes that job mobility across geographic regions or across sectors of employment may be limited for many scientists and engineers.

At the same time, though, the data do not permit identifying a pool of potential employees by field for a specific geographic region or just for the Navy. Also, it is impossible to tell which individuals from other sectors of employment should be excluded because they are not truly mobile. Finally, while acknowledging ONR's unique job requirements, the committee believes that drawing from a broad national pool whenever possible can only enhance the quality and diversity of potential job candidates.

Experienced Doctorate and Master's Recipients
Ph.D.S in Science and Engineering Fields

In order to identify the pool of underrepresented minorities, women, and persons with disabilities possibly eligible to assume current management positions at ONR, the committee examined data from the 1993 Survey of Doctorate Recipients (the most recent data were not available at the time of committee deliberations). In order to match the pool to ONR's needs, only individuals with Ph.D.s in the following fields were included: biological sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer science, physical sciences, and relevant fields within psychology. Only U.S. citizens were included, and only those who indicated that they were currently working in a field "somewhat related" or "closely related" to their Ph.D. field (91 percent of the total). In addition, only individuals who received their doctorates between 1960 and 1989 were included. Data on this pool are presented in Table Series A-1.

The overall pool of experienced Ph.D.s who meet the above criteria includes 228,400 individuals. Women represent almost 15 percent (33,600) of the total pool of experienced Ph.D.s, ranging from 24 percent (16,200) in the biological sciences, to 9 percent (5,900) in the physical sciences, to 3 percent (1,700) in engineering (see Figure 2-1). The percentage of women is highest in psychology (34 percent or 7,600), but this field represents only 4 percent of the expertise of ONR's current work force.

There are 7,300 African Americans, American Indians, and Hispanics in this pool, comprising about 3 percent of the total. Like women, underrepresented minorities are represented in somewhat higher proportions in psychology. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders comprise 9 percent (21,000) of the overall pool, with the highest concentration in engineering. Disabled persons represent less than 1 percent (1,500).

Within the physical sciences, the greatest number of women are in chemistry (11 percent or 4,000) and the lowest number in atmospheric sciences (2 percent or 30) and physics (4 percent or 800), as depicted in Figure 2-2. Although the numbers of underrepresented minorities in some of these fields are extremely small, they are somewhat higher in chemistry (3 percent or 1,200) and physics (2 percent or 500).

There has been substantial growth in the number of female Ph.D.s over the past few decades. Among graduates who received their degrees in 1960-64, women



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