Building A Diverse Work Force

Scientists and Engineers in the Office of Naval Research

Committee to Study Diversity in the Scientific and Engineering Work Force of the Office of Naval Research

Committee on Women and Science in Engineering

Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel

Naval Studies Board

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Building A Diverse Work Force Scientists and Engineers in the Office of Naval Research Committee to Study Diversity in the Scientific and Engineering Work Force of the Office of Naval Research Committee on Women and Science in Engineering Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Naval Studies Board National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1997

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-93-C-0089 issued by the Office of Naval research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or of the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Additional copies of this report are available from: Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE TO STUDY DIVERSITY IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING WORK FORCE OF THE OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Harrison Shull, Chair Member, National Academy Of Sciences Linda Cain Director Office of University and Science Education Oak Ridge National Laboratory George Campbell, Jr. President and CEO NACME, Inc. Katharine B. Gebbie Director Physics Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Eve L. Menger Director Characterization Science & Services Coming, Inc. Herbert Rabin Director, Engineering Research Center Associate Dean, A. J. Clark School of Engr. University of Maryland College Park Frank J. Talamantes Professor of Biology Sinsheimer Laboratories University of California, Santa Cruz Toni Tomacci Multicultural Diversity Specialist Director, Human Resources Matridigm Corporation Stephen J. Lukasik, Liaison Committee on Women in Science and Engineering NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF Ronald Taylor Director Naval Studies Board Marilyn Baker Associate Executive Director Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel

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COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Howard Georgi, Co-Chair Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics Harvard University Lilian Shiao-Yen Wu, Co-Chair Thomas J. Watson Research Center IBM Corporation Harold Amos Maude & Lilian Presley Professor Emeritus of Molecular Genetic Harvard Medical School Anita Borg Consultant Engineer Digital Equipment Corporation Jane E. Buikstra Professor of Anthropology University of New Mexico Deborah Jackson Member, Technical Staff Jet Propulsion Laboratory Frances E. Lockwood Vice President Technical & Product Development Valvoline Stephen J. Lukasik Los Angeles, California Willie Pearson, Jr. Professor of Sociology Wake Forest University Edward Roy, Jr. Vice President for Academic Affairs Trinity University Susan Solomon Senior Scientist NOAA Lois Steele Acting Division Director Human Resources Systems Development Indian Health Service—Tucson Julia Weertman Walter P. Murphy Professor Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science Northwestern University NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF Linda C. Skidmore Director

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OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMMITTEE M.R.C. Greenwood, Chair Chancellor University of California, Santa Cruz David Breneman Dean Curry School of Education University of Virginia Nancy Cantor Dean, Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies Vice Provost, Academic Affairs University of Michigan Carlos Gutierrez Professor of Chemistry California State University, Los Angeles Stephen J. Lukasik Los Angeles, California Barry Munitz Chancellor The California State University Janet Norwood Senior Fellow The Urban Institute John D. Wiley Provost Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs University of Wisconsin, Madison Tadataka Yamada President Healthcare Services SmithKline Beecham Corporation A. Thomas Young North Potomac, Maryland William H. Miller, ex-officio Department of Chemistry University of California, Berkeley NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF Charlotte Kuh Executive Director Marilyn J. Baker Associate Executive Director

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NAVAL STUDIES BOARD David K Heebner, Chair Science Applications International Corporation (retired) George M. Whitesides, Vice Chair Harvard University Albert J. Baciocco, Jr. The Baciocco Group, Inc. Alan Berman Applied Research Laboratory Pennsylvania State University Norman E. Betaque Logistics Management Institute Norval L. Broome The Mitre Corporation Gerald A. Cann Raytheon Company Seymour J. Deitchman Chevy Chase, Maryland Anthony J. DeMaria DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. John F. Egan Lockheed Martin Corporation Robert Hummel Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences New York University David W. McCall AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) Robert J. Murray Center for Naval Analyses Robert B. Oakley National Defense University William J. Phillips Northstar Associates, Inc. Mara G. Prentiss Jefferson Laboratory Harvard University Herbert Rabin University of Maryland Julie JCH Ryan Booz, Allen and Hamilton Harrison Shull Naval Postgraduate School (retired) Keith A. Smith Vienna, Virginia Robert C. Spindel Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington David L. Stanford Science Applications International Corporation · H. Gregory Tornatore Applied Physics Laboratory Johns Hopkins University J. Pace VanDevender Prosperity Institute Vincent Vitto Lincoln Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Brace Wald Center for Naval Analyses NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF Ronald D. Taylor Director

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PREFACE In late 1994, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) asked the National Research Council (NRC) to provide advice on how to ensure diversity in its future science and engineering work force in order to meet the needs of anticipated naval science and engineering specialties. The NRC Naval Studies Board and the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, through its Committee on Women in Science and Engineering, convened a one-day planning meeting to discuss an appropriate response to this request. At that meeting, Dr. Fred Saalfeld, Deputy Chief of Naval Research, suggested that the NRC might examine (1) how to increase diversity within ONR headquarters and thus indirectly within the Navy Laboratories, (2) how to recruit women, minorities, and persons with disabilities to ONR science and technology positions, (3) how to create a work climate in ONR that permits individuals to reach their full professional potential and to enter management ranks, and (4) how ONR's educational programs can be used to help increase the diversity of the long-term national pool of scientists and engineers, as well as those at ONR. These discussions led to the creation of a two-part study. Task 1 was to identify short-term activities that ONR might undertake to address recruitment, retention and attrition, utilization, and career development of the women, minority, and disabled scientists and engineers in its own science and engineering (hereafter referred to as S&E) work force; to analyze the current work environment; and to identify examples of programs elsewhere that might be used or modified for use at ONR. Task 2 was intended to address the longer-term pipeline issues and to examine the effectiveness of ONR's educational programs (its "corporate programs") in promoting diversity in the future national S&E work force and at ONR. The committee was asked to review the origins, objectives, and effectiveness of these programs and to determine how they might be modified to help increase the supply and availability of underrepresented scientists and engineers. While this study is in response to a request from the Office of Naval Research, the issue of how to increase the diversity of a scientific or technical work force is a generic one. The committee believes most of the recommendations contained in this report have applicability to other federal agencies as well, and many apply to universities and industrial organizations trying to increase the diversity of their science and engineering work force. A few comments on the methodology and scope of the study are in order. The committee met four times to analyze information and to deliberate. In addition, a subcommittee met separately to examine ONR's corporate programs. The former Chief of Naval Research, the Deputy

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Chief of Naval Research, the Chair of the ONR Diversity Committee, and the Deputy Director of the Corporate Programs Division all provided briefings. The committee used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to gather information. Data on the pools of scientists and engineers in the nation's work force potentially eligible for current or future positions at ONR were generated from the 1993 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, the 1990-95 Surveys of Earned Doctorates, and the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and other federal agencies. ONR provided extensive data on the demographic, educational, and employment characteristics of the 150 individuals in its S&E group, as well as samples of recent hiring actions. A consultant to the committee conducted in-depth personal interviews with 71 of the 150 scientists and engineers, 66 of whom also returned a written questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards a number of issues related to diversity. Summaries of the interview results can be found in Appendix C. The committee has attempted to gather information on successful diversity initiatives in organizations similar to ONR. Although it could not provide a comprehensive overview of such initiatives within the time and budget available, the committee did identify several examples of programs that can be adapted for use at ONR. In reviewing ONR's corporate programs, the committee examined descriptive material, data on participants, and sample program evaluations. It did not conduct an independent evaluation of each program. Although early discussions with Navy representatives on the scope of the study indicated a desire to address the Navy's scientific work force, subsequent discussions with ONR leadership established that the committee should focus on the scientific and engineering work force in ONR, which consists of approximately 150 professionals housed primarily in its headquarters in Arlington, Virginia, who manage Navy research and development funds. These program officers and their managers administer $1.4 billion annually and serve as a principal interface between the Navy and the academic community. Changing this work force can have an impact throughout the Navy's science and engineering community, including ONR's 5,400 principal investigators. There are nearly 1,500 scientists and engineers who work in the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), but they are primarily practicing scientists and engineers, not managers of research funds. Although their qualifications and backgrounds may be very similar to ONR scientists and engineers, their work activities are not. In consultation with ONR therefore, the committee decided to exclude NRL personnel from the present study, except as a possible pool for recruitment into ONR headquarters. References to ONR in this study are to ONR headquarters only. For purposes of this report, "diversity" is defined as the presence of a significant number of women, members of underrepresented racial groups, and persons with disabilities throughout the organization. "Significant" presence is determined by the numbers of individuals in each of the above groups eligible for employment in ONR positions. For ease of reference, the phrases "minorities and women," "underrepresented groups," and ''target group(s)'' used in this report all refer

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to the three groups above, unless otherwise indicated. The racial and ethnic groups targeted here are the primary groups that continue to be underrepresented in science and engineering fields: U.S. citizens who are African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians. Asian Americans are not included since in most fields of science and engineering they are not underrepresented. Some issues related to Asian Americans did surface in the interviews with ONR employees, however, and it was clear that their experiences were not the same as whites. The committee recognizes that this categorization does not capture the complexity of the situation. Not all Hispanic subgroups, for example, are underrepresented, while some Asian Americans, like Pacific Islanders, are. Unfortunately, the data sources available to us do not permit a greater level of detail. The definition of "persons with disabilities" is also complex. For purposes of this report, the definition used by NSF in its national surveys is applied: "individuals who have severe difficulty seeing, hearing, walking and/or lifting or are unable to perform these tasks." While the national surveys do collect data on these individuals, the numbers in any given field are very small. In describing ONR's current science and engineering work force, the committee has not been able to provide any detailed analysis by race or disability status as there is only one member of a minority group (an African American) in the population of 150, and only three persons with disabilities, according to ONR records. The bulk of the analysis, therefore, focuses on differences by gender. Data tables on the ONR work force are provided in the appendixes wherever possible, but in some cases the data have been omitted or have been presented in aggregate form to avoid the possibility of associating responses with specific individuals.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In carrying out this project, the committee has enjoyed sponsorship of both the Naval Studies Board and the Committee for Women in Science and Engineering, located in the NRC Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP). The committee also had significant interaction with Rear Admiral Mark Pelaez, former Chief of Naval Research, who sponsored the study; Dr. Fred Saalfeld, Deputy Chief of Naval Research; and the ONR Diversity Committee through Dr. Constance Oliver, its chair. ONR's Office of Human Resources, under the direction of Mary Aylor, was very cooperative in supplying personnel data. In addition, Debra Hughes, Deputy Director of the Corporate Programs Division, provided extensive background information on ONR's educational programs. The committee is grateful for the hard work and sound advice of Ronald Taylor, Director of the Naval Studies Board, and Marilyn Baker, Associate Executive Director of OSEP, who both entered this effort after it was under way and were instrumental in its completion. It also wishes to thank Karen Bogart, who conducted extensive interviews with ONR personnel; Molla Teclemariam, who provided data analysis and technical support; and Tamae Wong, who collected examples of successful diversity initiatives in other organizations. Pamela Lohof provided administrative support for the project and did an excellent job of editing the final document.

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In our world today, it is not enough for us and our students to acknowledge, in an abstract sense, that other kinds of people, with other modes of thought and feeling and action, exist somewhere—unseen, unheard, unvisited, and unknown. We must, in addition, extend ourselves in order to have direct contact with some substantial portion of that larger universe. There must be opportunities to hear different views directly—face to face—from people who believe them and embody them. Much can be learned from reading, from travel, and from formal academic study. But little if anything can substitute for the experience of continued association with others who are different from ourselves, and who challenge us even as we challenge them. NEIL L. RUDENSTINE PRESIDENT, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 1996

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CONTENTS Executive Summary   1     Part One: Increasing Diversity in ONR's Work Force,   1     Part Two: Using ONR's Corporate Programs to Enhance Diversity,   5 Part One: Increasing In Diversity In ONR's Work Force     1   Introduction   9     The Need for Diversity,   10     The Current Environment,   13 2   Profiles of the Science and Engineering Work Force   15     The National Pool of Scientists and Engineers,   15     ONR's Current Science and Engineering Work Force,   26     Other Pools,   38     Comparison of ONR Employees with the National Pools,   41 3   Building a Diverse Work Force   49     Recruitment and Hiring,   49     The Work Environment,   52     ONR Efforts to Increase Diversity,   55 4   Recommendations: Part One   61     Primary Recommendations,   62     Suggestions for Implementation,   63

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Part Two: Using ONR's Corporate Programs To Enhance Diversity     5   Observations on ONR's Corporate Programs   71     Overview,   71     The Individual Programs,   73     The Entire Portfolio,   76 6   Recommendations: Part Two   79     Primary Recommendations,   79     Suggestions for Implementation,   80 References   83 Appendixes     A Data Tables   85 B Recent ONR Hiring Actions   121 C Summary of Interviews with ONR Program Officers and Senior Executives   123 D Examples of Successful Diversity Initiatives in Other Organizations   133 E Biographical Sketches   139

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FIGURES 2-1   Experienced S&E doctorates by field, gender, race, and disability status   17 2-2   Physical science doctorates by field, gender, race, and disability status   17 2-3   Percent female, underrepresented minorities, and disabled S&E doctorates: 1960-89   18 2-4   Underrepresented S&E doctorates by sector of employment   19 2-5   Experienced master's in engineering by field, gender, race, and disability status   20 2-6   Percent female, underrepresented minorities, and disabled persons with master's in engineering: 1960-89   21 2-7   Underrepresented master's in engineering by sector of employment   22 2-8   Recent doctorates by field, gender, race, and disability status   24 2-9   Recent doctorates in physical sciences by field, gender, race, and disability status   24 2-10   Recent master's in engineering by field, gender, and race   25 2-11   ONR S&E employees by demographic characteristics   27 2-12   ONR S&E work force year of college entrance   28 2-13   ONR work force by grade and highest degree earned   29 2-14   Total and female ONR work force by field   31 2-15   ONR S&E work force by grade and gender   32 2-16   ONR start date   33 2-17   ONR S&E work force by most recent previous employer   35 2-18   ONR S&E recent hires by start grade and gender   37 2-19   NRL S&E employees by field, gender, race, and disability status   39 2-20   NRL S&E employees by grade and gender   39 2-21   Female principal investigators by sector of employment   40 2-22   National pool of experienced S&E and ONR doctorate work force by year of college entrance and gender   42

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TABLES 2-1   Distribution of ONR Work Force Across Grades   30 2-2   ONR Hire Date by Gender   32 2-3   Percent of Women in the ONR Work Force and National Pools   43 2-4   Percent of Underrepresented Minorities in the ONR Work Force and National Pools   46 2-5   Percent of Disabled Persons in the ONR Work Force and National Pools   47 APPENDIX A Series A-L: 1960-89 Graduates (1993) A-1.1   Number of Employed S&E Doctorates, by Field of Doctorate and Demographic Characteristics   86 A-1.2   Number of Employed Physical Science Doctorates, by Field of Doctorate and Demographic Characteristics   87 A-1.3   Number of Employed S&E Doctorates, by Year of Doctorate and Demographic Characteristics   88 A-1.4   Number of Employed S&E Doctorates, by Year of College Entrance   89 A-1.5   Number of Underrepresented S&E Doctorates, by Field of Doctorate, Sector of Employment, and Carnegie Classification   90 A-1.6   Number of Underrepresented S&E Doctorates Employed in Academia, by Field of Doctorate and Academic Rank   91 A-1.7   Responsibilities   92 A-1.8   Number of Underrepresented S&E Doctorates, by Field of Doctorate and R&D Status   93 Series A-2:1960-89 Graduates (1993) A-2.1   Number of Employed Engineers with Master's in Engineering, by Field of Degree and Demographic Characteristics   94 A-2.2   Number of Employed Engineers with Master's in Engineering, by Year of Graduation and Demographic Characteristics   95 A-2.3   Number of Underrepresented Engineers with Master's in Engineering, by Field of Degree and Sector of Employment   96

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A-2.4   Number of Underrepresented Engineers with Master's in Engineering, by Field of Degree and Professional Experience   97 A-2.5   Number of Underrepresented Engineers with Master' s in Engineering, by Field of Degree and Occupation   98 A-2.6   Number of Underrepresented Engineers with Master's in Engineering, by Field of Degree and R&D Status   99 Series A-3:1990-95 Graduates A-3.1   Number of Recent Ph.D. Scientists and Engineers, by Field of Doctorate and Demographic Characteristics   100 A-3.2   Number of Recent Physical Science Doctorates, by Field of Doctorate and Demographic Characteristics   101 A-3.3   Number of Underrepresented Recent S&E Doctorates, by Field of Doctorate and Geographic Location of Ph.D. Institution   102 A-3.4   Number of Underrepresented Recent S&E Doctorates, by Field of Doctorate and Carnegie Classification   103 A-3.5   Number of Underrepresented Recent S&E Doctorates, by Field of Doctorate and Locus of Institutional Control   104 Series A-4:1990-93 Graduates (1993) A-4.1   Number of Engineers with Recent Master's in Engineering, by Field of Degree and Demographic Characteristics   105 A-4.2   Number of Underrepresented Engineers with Recent Master's in Engineering, by Field of Degree and Geographic Location   106 Series A-5: A-5.1   ONR S&E Work Force by Field of Employment, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender   107 A-5.2   ONR S&E Work Force by Year of College Entrance   108 A-5.3   ONR S&E Work Force by Highest Degree Earned Grade, and Gender   109 A-5.4   ONR S&E Work Force by Field of Employment Grade, and Gender   110 A-5.5   ONR Start Date by Grade and Gender   111 A-5.6   Target Grade for GS 13 and GS 14 ONR S&E Employees by Gender   112 A-5.7   Median Salaries of the ONR S&E Program Officers by Grade and Gender   113 A-5.8   ONR S&E Work Force by the Most Recent and Second Most Recent Previous Employer   114 A-5.9   ONR Employee Separations (1988-95) by Year, Gender, Race, and Grade   115 A-5.10   ONR Most Recent Hires (1994-95) by Gender, Field of Employment, Grade at Hire, Most Recent and Second Most Recent Previous Employer   116 Series A-6: A-6.1   NRL S&E Employees by Field of Employment and Demographic Characteristics   117 A-6.2   NRL S&E Employees by Field of Employment, Grade, and Gender   118 A-6.3   NRL S&E Employees by Grade and Race   119

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